Wira hadi CONTOH MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG PENGERTIAN BAHASA Sunday, June 16, 2013 DEFINITION OF LANGUAGE PAPERS PRELIMINARY Indonesian is a national language we are still growing. Because -wide influence in... 5

CONTOH MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG PENGERTIAN BAHASA

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DEFINITION OF LANGUAGE PAPERS


PRELIMINARY


Indonesian is a national language we are still growing. Because -wide influence in, a variety of things and also elements that increase or change. People who do not follow the development of Indonesian will surely miss. Assortment of linguistic problems that appear in both the concerns word, phrase or sentence. Words and new terms appear to enrich our vocabulary, word  of even from regional languages ​​carry a lot of problems because of its use or spelling errors.
Many errors in language use is not a good language. It proves that language is not the language of the steady and the mistakes that led to many forms but because it violates the rules. The more exceptions in a language, the language that it is difficult to be learned easily. When the system of a language is not steady because there is always a deviation from the rules, the language difficult language to learn.
certainly want to be able to use the language well, both in the use of oral or written. Much more use of written language is not so easy because the written language must be structured properly and should use the right word meanings. In written language, no intonation, gestures, or expressions that the speaker can help understand the use of language in supposing form or wording is less regular. Therefore  write should be better than spoken language. In addition, the written language should also pay attention to spelling and use of punctuation. Use punctuation errors can obscure the meaning of a sentence or change the meaning so that it becomes another of which are intended by the author. In order to master the language well is necessary constant attention to the language. As an Indonesian, we can feel proud of when we can use the Indonesian language properly because this language is the language of our national property.


Chapter I
Discussion


a. Good language and correct
Often we hear the phrase "use the Indonesian language properly and correctly". The labels of many reactions. First, people think that the word is good and true in that phrase means or meaning of the same or identical. Actually not! Precisely expression and the rights it gives to the user the opportunity to use the language freely in accordance with and ability in speaking. Let's review the meaning of the two words.
Good speaking is speaking according to the language environment in use. In this case some of the factors to be decisive. First, people are talking. Second, in talking to people. The third situation is the situation formal talks or informal (casual). Fourth, the problem or topic of conversation. Some examples will be presented as follows:
A teacher who  deliver lessons in the classroom to her students or a professor in the faculty of giving lectures to students, should certainly use the formal language, commonly called the standard language. The situation is a formal situation. The teacher would not be able to use casual language, for example using Jakarta accent languages, or dialects Ambon or Manado.
A person who writes a letter to a job applicant or a department of a company, must also use the official standard language variety. So it is with a man who writes articles for a newspaper. Da no choice porters at Tanjung Priok who chatted with his fellow porters, would have to use a variety of language like that they use among themselves. Pelabuan coolies language is certainly not the raw variety, but the variety of casual language. Porters at Tanjung Priok port in Jakarta dialect will generally use the word I and lu uptake, with ude and Aje and not been or only.
Teenage children in Jakarta There may be conversing with using slang in their environment as a marker of their identity and efforts to limit their environment from external environment due to the use of slang, only those who know what they are talking about, while outsiders do not understand .
If a scientist talking to his friend and fellow scientist who talked about something they are related to a science, say math, aviation, monetary, they certainly have to use a variety of standard language of science they are talking about it.
Appropriate language as described above is what is called a good language, either because it fits with the situation. If we use a variety of other languages ​​that are not in accordance with the situation, the language we use is said to be a language that is not good.
Correct language is the appropriate language to , rules, forms, and. If the standard Indonesian language should be such that language written in the books taught in grammar schools. In contrast, when using one dialect, the dialect of Jakarta for example, to rigorously Jakarta language as used by natives of Jakarta. That is what is meant by the word correctly.
So, we are not required to be all day with anyone official Indonesian language variety. At home, we can talk using language like that we use in our family environment. Usually the family is not the same in every language. We are also not required to speak basic Indonesian rickshaw drivers. About we use a standard language with them, then the language that we use language that is not good even though it was true.
b. Some basic rules of Indonesian
The role of primary language is as a transmitter of intent and feelings to others. Viewed from this angle, it is also true when the language of a person capable of undertaking them. However, given that the linguistic situation is mixed, it is not always the correct language is good, or vice versa.
Adhering to the above restrictions, then there are two main requirements that must be met by each user Indonesian language he uses so that was good and true.
Both terms are it is:
· First, understand well the rules of Indonesian
· Second, to understand the true linguistic situation he faced.
Some Indonesian rule are:
1. The important word is mentioned or written first, then a new statement. Or words that describe the front explained. With other Indonesian term follow-explain the law explained.
Adhering to the law, it's clear wording such as Bali hotel, a little time, mini bike, maximum power, this night, many thanks, and the like, is not that correct . Such wording, namely that put something than the one described is the arrangement of the Indo-German languages. In an effort to Indonesian language is good and true arrangement like that should we leave. Thus the words we need to change into, Bali hotel, a little, mini bike, maximum power, this prophecy, and thank you very much.
2. Does not recognize changes in the noun form as a result
To declare multiple or many, discuss Indonesia using word numbers, both specific and non-specific numbers. Said specific numbers for example: two, four, ten, and so on. While the number is not specified as: little, some, a group, some partially and others. Besides the well known Indonesian certain words that implies plural or many. Words such as: group, bond, joint, list, union, unions, the, the, and so forth. Therefore, when there is one clue word is plural, the noun that follows behind them or should not be repeated.
            But now it turns out that many abandoned the rule. Still often we find Indonesian users using the wrong wording, such as:
1. Many children students who did not participate in the ceremony Monday
2. Not a bit of stolen goods
3. This is the list of students who participated CCN
4. A group of guests arrive at the meeting
5. The audience was asked to sit back
According to Indonesian rule, should be all that is behind all the words are not in the plural instructions again.
So suffice it to say like:
1. Many children students who did not participate Monday ceremony
2. Not a bit of stolen goods
3. Here's a list of students who participated CCN
4. A group of guests at the meeting dating
5. The audience was asked to sit again
            Because the words and the audience at the last sentence was already showing a lot of sense, it is quite in wearing one of them. Furthermore, because the audience does not exist in the Indonesian language, so if we want to use the word, said the assembly should be replaced with other words that mean the same show. For example: the guests or invitees.
            In the words too often we get such arrangement: the alumni, the politicians, the medisi, and so on. Because of the alumni, politicians, and have an understanding medisi plural of alumnus, politicians, and Medikus, then according to Indonesian rule correct, it should suffice to say: the alumnus or alumni, politicians or politicians, the Medikus or medisi. Easy to guess that the above arrangement is influenced by the indigenous language of the Indo-German arrangement. At these languages ​​change noun plural word pointer is a must. Because that was the prevailing regulations. As seen in the following examples:
Single: one table, a book, a girl
Plural: two tables, many books, many girls

3. not know the extent of use
            Indonesian is the language that is democratic. He did not know the extent of use. Do not know the verb form changes with respect to changes in people or subjects that do the work. Unlike the case with indigenous-language local language support. In the Java language, for example, the level of the existing language. It must be understood correctly by every user's language if the language is said to want a nice and polite. Java is a good language users always use the words that are considered polite to the older interlocutor or higher degree or rank.
            As a result of the influence of the mother language support, many Indonesian users from ethnic Javanese who slipped or put the words of the venerable Java language support when they talk to the other person who is considered older or of higher social status. For instance we often hear or sentences we read as follows:
1. Top fathers, I do want to thank you
2. Before Kondur, fathers  Dahar first
3. Because sultry, father Abdullah can not SOWAN
            It is clear that the sentences are not sentences Indonesian is good and right. Sentences we call it more precisely as a hodgepodge. Indonesian sentence is a sentence that uses elements of Indonesian development, good choice of words and structures. In order for the sentences above be truly Indonesian phrase, it should be changed to:
1. Upon arrival gentlemen, I thank you
2. Before going home, eating fathers first
3. Due to ill father Abdullah was unable to attend

C. errors are not realized
            In the speech, especially in writing, we often encounter the use of saying the wrong words, wrong spelling, or incorrect formation. The error arises because the language user does not realize the mistake he made. For example, words are pronounced with the sound off guard pepet like the word correctly, loud, clear. Katta Though it should be pronounced like the word tomorrow, bother, snub.
            Talk of new words in the Indonesian language as the word that gave rise to such post graduate, post-harvest, post-surgery. Elements can not stand on its own post so that it always appears together with the elements (words) else, instead of Latin. We know the feast of the Passover in the Christian religion. Said post has nothing to do with the word Easter. Kat post originated from ancient Javanese language means after. Letter c in the word sounds the same post with the words c installment, washing, searching. So, do not read or graduate as well as other words that merged with the post.
            One example is one in which the formation of an adventure. If we want to open Indonesian dictionary, we will find that the basic form of the above is the wanderer. Child entries listed below are adventurous, adventurous, and adventure. No other form, even adventure which is now widely used. So, it is not true if we say or write that person love adventure. The truth is that people love a good adventure in the sense of happy wandering, happy to go anywhere, or even dare to do daring. Adventurous word which means people can not be given prefix adventuring areas into an adventure because this word has no meaning formation.
            Errors as described above arises because users  just mimic what is used by others, while he himself did not who copied it wrong. Be use language because the language we use that supports the idea that we want to reveal. Unfortunately if an incorrect form later be grateful just because of high usage frequency.

D. Language which is not in accordance with reason
            Been a long time we know that language is a human tool express feelings, desires, and thoughts or opinions. Thus, a form of language that was born out of our mouths in the form of spoken language or written language must be in writing in accordance with what we feel or think. However, we often hear or read about the sentences which if carefully investigated, not in accordance with reason. For example:
Thanks to the expertise that already striker to replace Marco van Basten's era, making a single goal to bring Inter Milan's 1-0 win over Lazio at the stadium Gueiseppe Meaza.
            The first error is that it begins with the sentence occupying gatra function stating reasons. But the direct parent sentence begins with the title of "making a single goal", while the predicate gatra is not preceded by the subject. If we ask, who made a goal? Then the answer is a striker. But in the sentence above is said to be attributive striker or a description of the skill.
            The second mistake, said replacing Marco van Basten era. Is it true that it is replaced by striker Marco van Basten era? Is not being replaced Marco van Basten himself? The third error is an expression of triumph may be more appropriate if dibanti by giving Ambiguous sentence above can be replaced with:
· The striker, who has been named  replace Marco van Basten is making a single goal that gave victory to Inter Milan beat Lazio 1-0 at the stadium Gueiseppe Meaza,
· Thanks to the expertise of the s crowned striker Marco van Basten to replace it, it came to pass that creates a single goal victory over Lazio at Inter Milan stadium Gueiseppe Meaza: 1-0 to Inter Milan.



CHAPTER 3
Conclusion


            Determination of criteria Indonesian or good and really was not much different from what we say as a standard language. a word is really a word problem showing it. However, both problems would not arrive at a sentence, but the nature of the ineffectiveness of a sentence.
correctly on a word or a sentence is a view that is directed in terms of the rules of language. A sentence or a word is considered correct if the formation of these forms comply with the rules in force. Just as in the example "horse eating grass". The sentence was due to meet a sentence rules, ie no subject (horse), there is a predicate (eat), and also there is an object (grass). This sentence also meet the rules of a sentence in terms of meaning, that supports an information that can be understood by the reader. As with the "horse eating grass". This sentence is true because there is a subject, predicate, and object. However, in terms of meaning, this sentence is not true because it does not support a good meaning.
            A form of words to say absolutely that shows the correct formation according to the applicable rules. Said activity is not really writing for the occurrence of the word does not follow the rules of absorption that has been done. correct formation is due to the activity of the absorbed activity.
            Good sense on a word (formation) or sentence is directed view of the choice of words (diction). In a meeting we can use a word which is in accordance with the meeting so that the words written out or it will not create a sense of value that is not in place. Choice of words to be used in a string of sentence is very influential on the meaning of the sentence is presented.
            As a conclusion, which is the correct language is the language which apply rules consistently, while that is a good language is a language that has a proper sense of values ​​and according to the situation of its usage.

REFERENCES
   Badudu.J.S, 1995,  Inilah bahasa Indonesia yang benar, Jakarta, Gramedia Pustaka utama,
            Widagdo. Jdoko, 1994, Bahasa Indonesia pengantar kemahiran berbahasa diperguruan tinggi, Jakarta, Raja Grafindo persada.


PRELIMINARY


Indonesian is a national language we are still growing. Because -wide influence in, a variety of things and also elements that increase or change. People who do not follow the development of Indonesian will surely miss. Assortment of linguistic problems that appear in both the concerns word, phrase or sentence. Words and new terms appear to enrich our vocabulary, word  of even from regional languages ​​carry a lot of problems because of its use or spelling errors.
Many errors in language use is not a good language. It proves that language is not the language of the steady and the mistakes that led to many forms but because it violates the rules. The more exceptions in a language, the language that it is difficult to be learned easily. When the system of a language is not steady because there is always a deviation from the rules, the language difficult language to learn.
certainly want to be able to use the language well, both in the use of oral or written. Much more use of written language is not so easy because the written language must be structured properly and should use the right word meanings. In written language, no intonation, gestures, or expressions that the speaker can help understand the use of language in supposing form or wording is less regular. Therefore  write should be better than spoken language. In addition, the written language should also pay attention to spelling and use of punctuation. Use punctuation errors can obscure the meaning of a sentence or change the meaning so that it becomes another of which are intended by the author. In order to master the language well is necessary constant attention to the language. As an Indonesian, we can feel proud of when we can use the Indonesian language properly because this language is the language of our national property.


Chapter I
Discussion


a. Good language and correct
Often we hear the phrase "use the Indonesian language properly and correctly". The labels of many reactions. First, people think that the word is good and true in that phrase means or meaning of the same or identical. Actually not! Precisely expression and the rights it gives to the user the opportunity to use the language freely in accordance with and ability in speaking. Let's review the meaning of the two words.
Good speaking is speaking according to the language environment in use. In this case some of the factors to be decisive. First, people are talking. Second, in talking to people. The third situation is the situation formal talks or informal (casual). Fourth, the problem or topic of conversation. Some examples will be presented as follows:
A teacher who  deliver lessons in the classroom to her students or a professor in the faculty of giving lectures to students, should certainly use the formal language, commonly called the standard language. The situation is a formal situation. The teacher would not be able to use casual language, for example using Jakarta accent languages, or dialects Ambon or Manado.
A person who writes a letter to a job applicant or a department of a company, must also use the official standard language variety. So it is with a man who writes articles for a newspaper. Da no choice porters at Tanjung Priok who chatted with his fellow porters, would have to use a variety of language like that they use among themselves. Pelabuan coolies language is certainly not the raw variety, but the variety of casual language. Porters at Tanjung Priok port in Jakarta dialect will generally use the word I and lu uptake, with ude and Aje and not been or only.
Teenage children in Jakarta There may be conversing with using slang in their environment as a marker of their identity and efforts to limit their environment from external environment due to the use of slang, only those who know what they are talking about, while outsiders do not understand .
If a scientist talking to his friend and fellow scientist who talked about something they are related to a science, say math, aviation, monetary, they certainly have to use a variety of standard language of science they are talking about it.
Appropriate language as described above is what is called a good language, either because it fits with the situation. If we use a variety of other languages ​​that are not in accordance with the situation, the language we use is said to be a language that is not good.
Correct language is the appropriate language to , rules, forms, and. If the standard Indonesian language should be such that language written in the books taught in grammar schools. In contrast, when using one dialect, the dialect of Jakarta for example, to rigorously Jakarta language as used by natives of Jakarta. That is what is meant by the word correctly.
So, we are not required to be all day with anyone official Indonesian language variety. At home, we can talk using language like that we use in our family environment. Usually the family is not the same in every language. We are also not required to speak basic Indonesian rickshaw drivers. About we use a standard language with them, then the language that we use language that is not good even though it was true.
b. Some basic rules of Indonesian
The role of primary language is as a transmitter of intent and feelings to others. Viewed from this angle, it is also true when the language of a person capable of undertaking them. However, given that the linguistic situation is mixed, it is not always the correct language is good, or vice versa.
Adhering to the above restrictions, then there are two main requirements that must be met by each user Indonesian language he uses so that was good and true.
Both terms are it is:
· First, understand well the rules of Indonesian
· Second, to understand the true linguistic situation he faced.
Some Indonesian rule are:
1. The important word is mentioned or written first, then a new statement. Or words that describe the front explained. With other Indonesian term follow-explain the law explained.
Adhering to the law, it's clear wording such as Bali hotel, a little time, mini bike, maximum power, this night, many thanks, and the like, is not that correct . Such wording, namely that put something than the one described is the arrangement of the Indo-German languages. In an effort to Indonesian language is good and true arrangement like that should we leave. Thus the words we need to change into, Bali hotel, a little, mini bike, maximum power, this prophecy, and thank you very much.
2. Does not recognize changes in the noun form as a result
To declare multiple or many, discuss Indonesia using word numbers, both specific and non-specific numbers. Said specific numbers for example: two, four, ten, and so on. While the number is not specified as: little, some, a group, some partially and others. Besides the well known Indonesian certain words that implies plural or many. Words such as: group, bond, joint, list, union, unions, the, the, and so forth. Therefore, when there is one clue word is plural, the noun that follows behind them or should not be repeated.
            But now it turns out that many abandoned the rule. Still often we find Indonesian users using the wrong wording, such as:
1. Many children students who did not participate in the ceremony Monday
2. Not a bit of stolen goods
3. This is the list of students who participated CCN
4. A group of guests arrive at the meeting
5. The audience was asked to sit back
According to Indonesian rule, should be all that is behind all the words are not in the plural instructions again.
So suffice it to say like:
1. Many children students who did not participate Monday ceremony
2. Not a bit of stolen goods
3. Here's a list of students who participated CCN
4. A group of guests at the meeting dating
5. The audience was asked to sit again
            Because the words and the audience at the last sentence was already showing a lot of sense, it is quite in wearing one of them. Furthermore, because the audience does not exist in the Indonesian language, so if we want to use the word, said the assembly should be replaced with other words that mean the same show. For example: the guests or invitees.
            In the words too often we get such arrangement: the alumni, the politicians, the medisi, and so on. Because of the alumni, politicians, and have an understanding medisi plural of alumnus, politicians, and Medikus, then according to Indonesian rule correct, it should suffice to say: the alumnus or alumni, politicians or politicians, the Medikus or medisi. Easy to guess that the above arrangement is influenced by the indigenous language of the Indo-German arrangement. At these languages ​​change noun plural word pointer is a must. Because that was the prevailing regulations. As seen in the following examples:
Single: one table, a book, a girl
Plural: two tables, many books, many girls

3. not know the extent of use
            Indonesian is the language that is democratic. He did not know the extent of use. Do not know the verb form changes with respect to changes in people or subjects that do the work. Unlike the case with indigenous-language local language support. In the Java language, for example, the level of the existing language. It must be understood correctly by every user's language if the language is said to want a nice and polite. Java is a good language users always use the words that are considered polite to the older interlocutor or higher degree or rank.
            As a result of the influence of the mother language support, many Indonesian users from ethnic Javanese who slipped or put the words of the venerable Java language support when they talk to the other person who is considered older or of higher social status. For instance we often hear or sentences we read as follows:
1. Top fathers, I do want to thank you
2. Before Kondur, fathers  Dahar first
3. Because sultry, father Abdullah can not SOWAN
            It is clear that the sentences are not sentences Indonesian is good and right. Sentences we call it more precisely as a hodgepodge. Indonesian sentence is a sentence that uses elements of Indonesian development, good choice of words and structures. In order for the sentences above be truly Indonesian phrase, it should be changed to:
1. Upon arrival gentlemen, I thank you
2. Before going home, eating fathers first
3. Due to ill father Abdullah was unable to attend

C. errors are not realized
            In the speech, especially in writing, we often encounter the use of saying the wrong words, wrong spelling, or incorrect formation. The error arises because the language user does not realize the mistake he made. For example, words are pronounced with the sound off guard pepet like the word correctly, loud, clear. Katta Though it should be pronounced like the word tomorrow, bother, snub.
            Talk of new words in the Indonesian language as the word that gave rise to such post graduate, post-harvest, post-surgery. Elements can not stand on its own post so that it always appears together with the elements (words) else, instead of Latin. We know the feast of the Passover in the Christian religion. Said post has nothing to do with the word Easter. Kat post originated from ancient Javanese language means after. Letter c in the word sounds the same post with the words c installment, washing, searching. So, do not read or graduate as well as other words that merged with the post.
            One example is one in which the formation of an adventure. If we want to open Indonesian dictionary, we will find that the basic form of the above is the wanderer. Child entries listed below are adventurous, adventurous, and adventure. No other form, even adventure which is now widely used. So, it is not true if we say or write that person love adventure. The truth is that people love a good adventure in the sense of happy wandering, happy to go anywhere, or even dare to do daring. Adventurous word which means people can not be given prefix adventuring areas into an adventure because this word has no meaning formation.
            Errors as described above arises because users  just mimic what is used by others, while he himself did not who copied it wrong. Be use language because the language we use that supports the idea that we want to reveal. Unfortunately if an incorrect form later be grateful just because of high usage frequency.

D. Language which is not in accordance with reason
            Been a long time we know that language is a human tool express feelings, desires, and thoughts or opinions. Thus, a form of language that was born out of our mouths in the form of spoken language or written language must be in writing in accordance with what we feel or think. However, we often hear or read about the sentences which if carefully investigated, not in accordance with reason. For example:
Thanks to the expertise that already striker to replace Marco van Basten's era, making a single goal to bring Inter Milan's 1-0 win over Lazio at the stadium Gueiseppe Meaza.
            The first error is that it begins with the sentence occupying gatra function stating reasons. But the direct parent sentence begins with the title of "making a single goal", while the predicate gatra is not preceded by the subject. If we ask, who made a goal? Then the answer is a striker. But in the sentence above is said to be attributive striker or a description of the skill.
            The second mistake, said replacing Marco van Basten era. Is it true that it is replaced by striker Marco van Basten era? Is not being replaced Marco van Basten himself? The third error is an expression of triumph may be more appropriate if dibanti by giving Ambiguous sentence above can be replaced with:
· The striker, who has been named  replace Marco van Basten is making a single goal that gave victory to Inter Milan beat Lazio 1-0 at the stadium Gueiseppe Meaza,
· Thanks to the expertise of the s crowned striker Marco van Basten to replace it, it came to pass that creates a single goal victory over Lazio at Inter Milan stadium Gueiseppe Meaza: 1-0 to Inter Milan.



CHAPTER 3
Conclusion


            Determination of criteria Indonesian or good and really was not much different from what we say as a standard language. a word is really a word problem showing it. However, both problems would not arrive at a sentence, but the nature of the ineffectiveness of a sentence.
correctly on a word or a sentence is a view that is directed in terms of the rules of language. A sentence or a word is considered correct if the formation of these forms comply with the rules in force. Just as in the example "horse eating grass". The sentence was due to meet a sentence rules, ie no subject (horse), there is a predicate (eat), and also there is an object (grass). This sentence also meet the rules of a sentence in terms of meaning, that supports an information that can be understood by the reader. As with the "horse eating grass". This sentence is true because there is a subject, predicate, and object. However, in terms of meaning, this sentence is not true because it does not support a good meaning.
            A form of words to say absolutely that shows the correct formation according to the applicable rules. Said activity is not really writing for the occurrence of the word does not follow the rules of absorption that has been done. correct formation is due to the activity of the absorbed activity.
            Good sense on a word (formation) or sentence is directed view of the choice of words (diction). In a meeting we can use a word which is in accordance with the meeting so that the words written out or it will not create a sense of value that is not in place. Choice of words to be used in a string of sentence is very influential on the meaning of the sentence is presented.
            As a conclusion, which is the correct language is the language which apply rules consistently, while that is a good language is a language that has a proper sense of values ​​and according to the situation of its usage.

REFERENCES
   Badudu.J.S, 1995,  Inilah bahasa Indonesia yang benar, Jakarta, Gramedia Pustaka utama,
            Widagdo. Jdoko, 1994, Bahasa Indonesia pengantar kemahiran berbahasa diperguruan tinggi, Jakarta, Raja Grafindo persada.


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