Wira hadi CONTOH MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG NUTRITIONAL HEALTH PAPERS Saturday, June 8, 2013 NUTRITIONAL HEALTH PAPERS CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. Background. Nutritional problems are still quite vulnerable in some p... 5




1. Background.

Nutritional problems are still quite vulnerable in some parts of Indonesia, especially in the area of ​​urban slums, areas frequently hit by drought (NTB and NTT). Where the condition of many people who are malnourished, many children are affected by malnutrition. Malnutrition / underweight often occur due to an unbalanced diet, especially in terms of protein.

Protein is essential to help the growth of children, and improve their endurance. And also the excess protein will also cause diseases, such as obesity. So can cause diseases such as kwashiorkor, marasmus, and obesity.

Therefore, in addition to fulfilling tasks in the course "fundamentals of the science of nutrition", the author raised the title of protein, as protein is the most important substance that must be present in the human body.
Masuh many cases but also protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). Here the authors are interested to learn more about about the protein.

2. Destination

a. General purpose.
That students and readers understand the importance of protein for our body.

b. Special Purpose.
§ Expressing concerns about protein
§ Describe the levels and function of proteins for humans
§ Inform the students a source of protein
§ Explain the result and the lack of protein
§ Etc.


1. Definition

The term comes from the Greek proteins proteos, which means that in the main or precedence. This word in right perkenal by the Dutch chemist, Gerard mulder (1802-1880). He argues that the protein is the most important substance in any organism.

Protein is part of all living cells and is a major part body after water. One-fifth part of the body is separohnya protein is in muscle, fifth in bone and cartilage, spersepuluh in kilit and the rest in other tissues and body fluids. All enzymes, hormones pengengkut various nutrients and blood. Besides the amino acids that make up proteins act as precursors, most of coenzyme, hormones, nucleic acids, and molecular-molekuk essential for life.

Protein has the typical functions that can not be replaced by other chemicals, which build and maintain cells and tissues.

2. Protein Classification.

Proteins present in the form of fibers (fibrous), globular, and kunjngsi.

a. Porotein in the form of fibers.

Consists of a helical peptide chains and interwoven with one another, so as to resemble batany rigid.

- Low power dissolution.
- Mempnayi high mechanical strength.
- Resistant to digestive enzymes.

Examples of protein fibers:
Collagen, elastin, keratin, myosin.

b. Globular proteins.


- Shaped ball.
- Late in the saline solution and dilute acid.
- Easy to change in temperature influences.
- The concentration of salt susceptible to denaturation.

Albumin, globumin, histone, protamine.

c. Protein conjunctions.
A simple protein that bound to the material non-amino acid (prosthetic group).

Nucleoprotein, lipoprotein, fosfoprotein, metaloprotein.

The types of protein:
a. Based component.

1. Understated protein.
A mixture consisting of mino acid.

2. Protein Complex.
Besides consisting of amino acids are also contained other components (metals, phosphate groups, etc.).

3. Protein.
A bond between the intermediate products as a result of partial hydrolysis of the native protein.

b. Based sources.

1. Animal Protein.
Animal origin, eg meat, milk, etc..

2. Vegetable Protein.

Derived from plants, eg maize.

Classification of proteins can also be done by fisiologiknya function, associated with any support for the agency and for the maintenance prtumbuhan network available:

a. Protein is perfect.
b. Protein half perfectly.
c. Protein is not perfect.

3. Chemical composition of the protein.
Protein is a macro molecule having a molecular weight between five thousand to several million. Proteins consist of long chains of amino acids, which are bound to one another in a peptide bond. Protein molecules is more complex than carbohydrates and fats in terms of molecular weight and kanekaragaman units of amino acids that make it up.

Amino acids are composed of carbon atoms bonded to one carboxyl group (-COOH), an amino group (-NH2), a hydrogen atom (-H) and the radical group (-R) or branched chain, as shown in the following figure:

In general, amino acids are isolated from hididroksilat protein alpha-amino acids, the amino guguskarboksil and bound to the same carbon atom. What distinguishes each other amino acids are the branched chain or its group-R.

4. Function, order, and Protein Source. Here we can see the function of proteins, among others, as follows:

a. For growth and maintenance.
b. Ties for the formation of essential body.
c. To regulate the water balance in the body.
d. To maintain the neutrality of the body.
e. For antibody formation.
f. To lift the nutrients.
g. As an energy source.

Therefore, protein is very important in the human body, because the human bial protein is not enough, then they will be suffering from malnutrition.

Protein to the human body:
Protein is an important role for the growth manusia.penting contained in all living things. So in the absence of the protein can not be formed living cells. Broadly speaking, the amount of protein for human use are as follows:

a. To build a network of cells that the body of a baby born weighing 3 kg.
b. To replace cells that are worn or damaged.
c. To make milk, enzymes and hormones given the mother's milk kepadabayinya made from the mother's own food.
d. Making blood proteins, to maintain blood pressure Osmose.
e. To maintain the balance of body fluids basadari acid.
f. As the giver of calories.

Source of protein.
Source of protein for humans there are two, namely:

a. Source of animal protein.
Animal foods are good sources of protein, such as the number and quality of eggs, milk, meat, poultry, fish, and shellfish.

b. Source of vegetable protein.
Food sources such as nuts, soy, and the result is like tempeh, tofu, and other beans.

5. For Human Protein needs.

Protein needs for humans can be determined by counting the number of proteins in the body are replaced. This can be done by counting the number of elements nitrogn (nitrogen) present in protein foods and also calculate the amount of nitrogen which is released by the body through urine and feces.

The use of proteins can be affected by many factors, so in practice jumlahprotein it can not meet the needs. Reason, among others:

- 18.75 grams protein content in the body it will cause a chemical reaction can take place properly.
- Digestibility of protein itself. Not all foods that contain protein fibers of the body can be taken. Because of the existence of these fibers, enzymes can not enter to break down proteins.

Based on the above considerations, it was determined that the protein requirement for an adult is 1 gram for every kilogram of body weight per day. For children growing up, need more protein, which is 3 grams per kilogram of body weight.

In addition, given the existence of perfect and imperfect protein based on the number and kinds of amino acids present in the diet, it is to ensure that the body is really getting amine acid in an amount and manner sufficient, preferably for an adult one-fifth of the required protein must be derived from animal protein, whereas for children protei-third of the amount they need.

Table: Figures protein adequacy by age group.

O Age group (years) AKP (value PST) g / kg
Male Female
1. 0 to 0.5 1.86
(85% of milk) 1.86
(85% of milk)
2. 0.5 to 2.0 1.39
(80% of milk) 1.39
(80% of milk)
3. 4-5 1.08 1.08
4. 5-10 1.00 1.00
5. 10-18 1.96 0.90
6. 18-60 0.75 0.75
7. 60 + 0.75 0.75
8. Pregnant women 12 + grams / day
9. First 6 months of breastfeeding mothers. + 16 grams / day
10. Breastfeeding mothers second 6 months + 12 g / day
11. Second year nursing mothers + 11 g / day
Sources: FAO / WHO / UNU, 1985
PST: Worth Egg Protein.



1. Protein Deficiency and Excess.
a. Due to lack of protein.
Lack of protein found in many lower socioeconomic communities. Pure protein deficiency on the stage of causing severe kwashiorkor in children under five years old (toddlers). Protein deficiency is often found together with the lack of energy that causes a condition called Marasmus.

1. Kwashiorkor.
The term kwashiorkor was first introduced by Dr.. Cecily Williams in 1933, when she found the situation in Ghana, Africa. Where the language of Ghana means kwashiorkor disease acquired her first child, when his second child being ditungu.

Kwashiorkor rely more abundant in two to three years of age are common in children who terlambatmenyapih, so the nutritional composition of the food is not balanced, especially in terms of protein. Kwashiorkor can terjadipada enough energy consumption or more.

- Stunted growth.
- The muscles is reduced and weak.
- Edema.
- Advances round like the moon (Moonface)
- Impaired psikimotor.

Characteristic of kwashiorkor is edema in the abdomen, legs and arms. The presence of kwashiorkor is closely related to serum albumin. In the clinical picture of kwashiorkor children are very different. Weight loss is not too low, can even be covered by the edema, so the relative weight loss is not too far away, but when treatment edema disappeared, the low weight will begin to manifest themselves. Weight usually is not until below 60% of standard weight for age appropriate.

- Fine hair, sparse, and dull reddish blonde.
- The skin looks dry (Xerosis) and cast aspersions with surface lines clear.
- In areas legs and elbows and buttocks are showing skin hyperpigmentation and skin can be peeled off in large sheets, leaving a smooth base glazed white.
- Stomach bulge children because of an enlarged heart.
- On microscopic examination there perlemkan liver cells.

2. Marasmus.
Marasmus derived from the Greek word which means wasting damage. Marasmus is generally a disease in infants (first 12 months), because of late given extra food. This can occur due to sudden weaning, milk substitute formula is too watery and not hygienic or frequent infections. Marasmus influential as quickly long for mental and physical that is difficult to repair.

Marasmus is a disease and there is a lot of hunger among low socioeconomic groups in most of the developing countries and more than kwashiorkor.

- Stunted growth.
- Fat under the skin is reduced.
- The muscles are reduced and weakened.
- Closely body more affected than the size of the framework, such as: length, head circumference and chest circumference.
- Advances such as the elderly (oldman's face).

In patients with marasmus usually no liver enlargement (hepatomegalia) and fat content and cholesterol in the blood decreases. Body temperature is also lower than the temperature of a healthy child, and the child lying in-active, no attention to her surroundings.

b. Due to excess protein.

Excessive protein does not benefit the body. High protein foods are usually high in fat which can lead to obesity. High protein diet is often recommended for weight loss less reasonable. Excess can cause other problems, especially in infants. Excess amino acids and kidney and liver to metabolize remove excess nitrogen.

Excess protein will lead to acidosis, dehydration, diarrhea, increase in blood ammonia, blood urea increase, and fever. This is seen in infants fed skim milk or formula with a high concentration, so that protein intake to 6 g / kg. The recommended limit for protein consumption is twice angaka nutrition RDA) for protein.

2. Efforts.

To overcome the shortage / excess protein, the reduction can be done as follows:

- Monitoring of nutritional status (PSG) community.
- Provision of supplementary food (PMT).
- Monitoring of iodized salt.
- Giving vitamin capsules. A
- Provision of Fe tablets.
- Data collection KADARZI.


1. Conclusion.

Of the above papers, it can be concluded that the protein peulis very important, especially for growth. Besides, protein is the main substance in helping the development of the child. So that enough protein intake if the child, then the child will grow sehta, away from malnutrition and the absence of growth disorders.

In addition, protein is the largest energy producer.
The presence of protein in the body, then the body will still feel fresh. But to be aware of the body's protein intake to be balanced, should not be starved and not bileh excess anyway. Due to excess or deficiency of protein intake can lead to diseases, such as kwashiorkor, marasmus, and obesity.

Therefore, it is expected that the reader, to be able to benefit from the what has been presented in this paper, in order to improve the nutritional status in the society, so as to create a healthy society.

2. Suggestions.

a. It is expected that the entire community to ensure adequate intake of protein, that can grow with less healthy.

b. That all mothers of children pay attention to nutrition, especially protein intake, so that no more people with malnutrition.

c. To health workers to be able to conduct outreach to the community about nutrition, especially of proteins.

d. Expected by society or any readers want to come and promote programs on combating malnutrition, in order to achieve Healthy Indonesia 2010.


1. Almatsier, S. "Prinsip Dasar Ilmu Gizi". Penerbit : PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakarta : 2006.

2. Sediaoetama, Drs. Ahmad Djaeni. "Ilmu Gizi". Penerbit : Dian Rakyat. Jakarta : 2006.

3. Moehdi, S. " Ilmu Gizi". Penerbit : Papasinar Sinanti. Jakarta : 2002.

4. Kartasapoetra, Drs.G. "Ilmu Gizi". Penerbit : Rineka Cipta. Jakarta : 2003.

5. http//www.google.com//gizi buruk//2008.

6. http//www.google.co.id//journal tentang protein.// 2008.

1 comment:

  1. Hi..
    Thanks for posting this papers that's really help..!!



Template By: Fauzi Blog Sponsored By: skripsi - Free For Download