Definition of Scientific Work
"Scientific Authorship is an essay or writing made in accordance with the nature and based on scientific observations, review of research in a particular field, arranged according to specific methods with systematic writing accountable language and truth / scholarship."-Eko Susilo, M. 1995:11
Purpose of making scientific articles, among others:
• Provide an explanation
• Make comments or ratings
• Delivering rebuttal
• Proving the hypothesis
Scientific work is a masterpiece in the field of science (science) and technology that shaped the scientific. A work can be said to be scientific if its realization process through the scientific method. Jonnes (1960) provide scientific terms, such as the nature of the facts presented and methods of writing.
When the facts are presented in the form of an objective and general facts can be proven true or not as well written scientifically, ie according to the procedure of scientific writing, the writing can be categorized as scientific papers, whereas when the facts are presented in the form of personal Dakta are subjective and can not be proven whether or not this and not scientifically written, the papers include non-scientific papers.
Forms of Scientific Work
Known in the scientific work takes the form of papers, reports or scientific reports, which were recorded, and scientific books.
1. Shaped Scientific Papers
Papers are generally prepared for writing in scientific publications, such as scientific journals, seminar proceedings for bulletins, or science magazines and so on. Then the main feature is a brief paper, only the main points only and no table of contents.
2. Shaped Scientific Report / Scientific Reports, which were recorded
The scientific work of this type are typically written to report the results of research, observation, or survey conducted by a person or group of people. A scientific report on the college's academic requirements are usually called Thesis, which is usually used as a requirement for scientific papers S1, S2 Thesis for, and Dissertations for S3 level.
Scientific books are scholarly works composed and printed in book form by a general book publishers for sale commercially in the market. Scientific books can contain special lesson to other general science.
Characteristics of Scientific Work
1. Serving structure
Grain structure is very rigorous scientific work, usually made up from the beginning (introduction), the core (the subject), and the concluding section. The early part is an introduction to the core, while the core is a staple dish ideas to be conveyed which may consist of several chapters or subtopic. The concluding section is a discussion of the principal conclusions and recommendations of the authors follow up the idea.
2. Components and Substance
Components of scientific work varies according to its type, but all scientific papers containing the introduction, the core part, cover, and bibliography. Scientific articles published in the journal requires the existence of an abstract.
3. Attitude Authors
The author's attitude in the scientific work is objective, which was delivered by using impersonal style, with much use of the passive voice, without using the first person pronoun or both.
4. Use of Language
The language used in scientific work is reflected in the language that the choice of words / terms, and effective sentences with a standard structure.
Various Kinds of Scientific Work
1. Thesis; was writing (science) students to complete the requirements to get a bachelor's degree (S1). Written thesis based on opinion (theory) of others. Opinion is supported by empirical data and objective facts, either based on direct research, field observations / research in the laboratory, or library research. Thesis requires methodological rigor to guarantee a material contribution towards new discoveries.
2. Thesis; was kind of written works of a systematic study on the issue. Thesis contains a method of collection, analysis and processing of data, and present conclusions and make recommendations. Originality thesis must appear, ie by showing independent and critical thinking. Raw writing and thesis defended at trial. Argumentative thesis and is also produced from a research process that weighs a certain originality.
3. Dissertation; was officially the end of scientific papers a student in completing the S3 science education program. The dissertation is a testament to the ability of the concerned in conducting research related to new discoveries in one discipline of science education.
In scientific writing, there are 7 scientific attitude is an attitude that should be there. Scientific attitudes are as follows:
1) Attitude curious
This curious attitude seen in habit of asking about various issues related to the field of studies.
2) A critical attitude
Critical attitude is seen in the habit of looking for as much information as possible related to the field of comparative studies for over-excess-cons, match the very least, the truth of whether or not, and so on.
3) an objective attitude
Detachment is seen in the habit of stating what it is, without personal feelings followed.
4) Attitude wanted to find
Always give suggestions for new experiments. Habit of using experiments with a good and constructive way. Always give a new consultancy from observations done.
5) Respect other people's work
Respect for other people's work is seen in the habit of supposing clearly identify the source of statements or opinions expressed are derived from statements or opinions of others.
6) zealous attitude
Not tired of holding an inquiry, willing to repeat the experiment whose results dubious, will not stop doing the activities if not finished. To the things he wanted to know he was trying to work with carefully.
7) Open attitude
This open attitude seen in the listening habits of opinions, arguments, criticism, and testimony of others, though in the end the opinion, argument, criticism, and the testimony of others is not acceptable because they do not agree or do not fit.
1. As a vehicle to train express ideas or research results in the form of a scientific paper is a systematic and methodological.
2. Foster scientific ethos among students, thus not only be consumers of knowledge, but also capable of being a producer of thinking and writing in the field of science and technology, especially after the completion of his studies.
3. Scientific papers have been written it is expected to be a vehicle for the transformation of knowledge between the institutions of society, or those who are interested to read 2.
4. Prove the potential and scientific insights possessed by students in the face and resolve the problem in the form of scientific papers concerned after obtaining the knowledge and education of the department.
5. Train the basic skills to conduct research
Scientific Authorship Creation Phase
One of the difficulties faced by teachers or students are writing scientific papers. One of the main problems is they do not understand the steps to write scientific papers. They always say that writing a scientific paper was very difficult and they may not do. This case there are many things that cause it. They always complain that the steps are very difficult to write papers and do not support their desire to write.
Therefore, it should be clear references about the steps to write scientific papers. This is to give teachers and students the opportunity play and develop his writing skills to the fullest.
The scientific method of research and development of writing scientific papers is a way for the implementation of a systematic and objective follow the steps to write scientific papers as follows.
1. Observation and assign problems and goals
This is a step by step write the first scientific work, ie observing the object under study. Set problem and objectives to be studied and used as a scientific work. The move is a reference point you in the process of writing or research
2. Formulate hypotheses
Steps to write scientific papers that both are preparing allegations that the cause of the object of your research. This hypothesis is a prediction set when you observe the object of research.
3. Draft research
Your next draft as the third step of the research steps to write scientific papers. It is a framework for the research conducted.
4. Carry out experiments based on the method proposed
This is the fourth step of the steps to write scientific papers that constitute the real activities of the research process in the form of research conducted related experiments. You are doing a significant experiment with the object of research.
5. Carry out observations and data collection
After experimenting with the method of the object of research is planned, then the next you do the observations of the experiments carried objects. What happens to the object of research. This is a step by step write scientific papers of the fifth.
6. and interpret data
Step six step writing scientific papers, namely and interpret the results of observations that have been made. You try to interpret all conditions that occur at the time of observation. In this step you are trying to research and figure out what happened from observation and data collection.
7. And formulate conclusions or theories
The seventh step of writing the steps of scientific work is to formulate conclusions or theories about everything that happened during the experiment, observation, analyzing, and interpreting data. This step tries to draw conclusions from all obtained from the experiments, observations, analyzing, and interpreting the research object.
8. Reported the results of research
The final step of the steps is to write scientific papers reporting research results. And, this step is actually the process of writing scientific papers. With this step, the teacher or students can compose an article or scientific paper that will contribute to the enhancement of personal qualities.
If you want to make the process of the preparation of scientific papers, then at least the steps to write a scientific paper to understand and apply. Thus, the process of writing you are completely objective and useful to people's lives. And, this is your concrete contribution to the community.
Posted by Princess Mega at 6:14 AM No comments:
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Labels: Indonesian 1
Saturday, January 5, 2013
Again and again Indonesian officials Doing Corruption!
Commission decided to hold the former head of the Traffic Corps Police Headquarters, Inspector General Djoko Susilo.
Djoko had previously been named as a suspect in the case of procurement corruption simulator driver's license exam in Indonesian Police.
"The suspect was arrested for for the next 20 days starting today in the Class I State Prison in East Jakarta branch of the Commission located at Pomdam Jaya, Guntur," said KPK spokesman Johan Budi.
Johan said more Guntur detention because of technical problems.
"Space custody at the KPK building is currently undergoing repairs due to a leak in the detention room in here," said Johan.
He said that despite being in jail Pomdam Jaya, Thunder guard but still carried out by officers of the Commission and not the military.
"Babysitting is done by the officials," added Johan.
Accept the decision of the Commission
Suspect arrested after Djoko Susilo said examination will undergo a legal process conducted by the KPK.
"According to an arrest warrant today I followed the legal process and detention," said Inspector General Djoko Susilo after undergoing examinations for nearly eight hours on the Building Commission.
In contrast to the suspect who has been designated as a prisoner by the Commission, Djoko Susilo not visible using prison uniform and handcuffs as prisoners to the car.
"Clothes prisoners had been taken by investigators with Mr. DS on the way to arrest the car, that's about the handcuffs forced to pick up the effort and if there are arrests made after his arrest my last checkup, it is also a lot of guns handcuffed besides Pak DS," said Johan Budi .
"We are still and have not decided whether to stop the DS or not"
Law enforcement agencies also do not rule out the possibility to investigate the role of other officials of the police in this case.
"We are still menyeleidiki and have not decided whether to stop the DS or not," said Johan.
Currently besides Djoko Susilo, there are three other suspects who have been determined by the Commission, they are Korlantas former Deputy Chief, Brigadier General (Pol) Didik Purnomo, as well as two counterparties, Budi Susanto and Sukotjo S Bambang.
Handling this case had led to a dispute between the Commission and the police.
President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono in early October, he had given specific orders simulator procurement handling this case, President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono when the Commission is assessing the competent authorities to handle it.
"Police handled other cases," President Yudhoyono said at the time.
Corruption Eradication Commission stated Djoko Susilo alleged to have violated Article 2, paragraph 1 and / or Article 3 of the Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 31 of 199 on the Eradication of Corruption.
KPK according to Johan so far have found the losses that had reached about 100 billion in the case of alleged corruption in the procurement of simulators fiscal year 2011.
So what our country is that the NATION LEADER exemplifies the public to corruption?? Though INCOME exceeds Officials from pretty, but those with CONSCIENCE which I think is very , heart to take people's money that should be used for the benefit of our country Indonesia. I also had time to watch TV programs and a doctor told me that there was an incident where in a city in Indonesia officials who are conducting the election. Then the candidates so how could the officials told patients who have severe disease at every health center in the city to be discharged. Because according to him, to reduce the rate of disability in his city. Because there is a patient behaved toddler who died at his home due to not getting the help of medical treatment.
Still it appropriate that OFFICERS CANDIDATE called HUMAN???...