Wira hadi ARTIKEL BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG PERKEMBANGAN SISWA SD Saturday, June 15, 2013 DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS SD Individual development is a complex thing, it means a lot of factors that helped influence and intertw... 5

ARTIKEL BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG PERKEMBANGAN SISWA SD

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DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS SD

Individual development is a complex thing, it means a lot of factors that helped influence and intertwined in the process of child development. Both elements of the innate and the elements of the experience gained in interacting with the environment equally certain contribution to the direction and rate of development of the child.

Discussed the many aspects that cause developmental problems in discussing the many terms and concepts used. Similarly, the number of views and theories in explaining the phenomena of child development to make the wealth of knowledge about child development.

Overview of the development of the above discussion begins with the need to understand the concepts of development, followed by a discussion child development.


1. Understanding Growth and Development
From time to time human life is constantly changing. Starting from the basic two egg cells and sperm, an organism grows and develops. The two cells then divide and differentiate to generate the bones, nerves, muscles, intestines, brain, and parts of other organs. After about nine months in the mother's womb, a new organism grows the baby ended up being a perfect human being and ready to come into the world with the minimal life skills that breathe, move their bodies, crying, and nursing.

Although at the time of birth is only armed with a minimal set of skills, through interaction with the environment (parents, siblings, other adults, and the objects around him) continues to further refine the baby herself.
He continues to undergo various physical changes both in size and proportion. Weight and height of the baby continues to grow, as did the proportion between the organs of the body, head, body, legs, hands, and other organs continue to turn out to be more balanced.

Along with changes in the physical structure, behavior and skills of the various baby also continue. In terms of motor behavior, such as starting from only could lie down, and then capable of rolling, lay down, sit, crawl, stand, walk and eventually run.

Discussion illustrates the process of change experienced by the young man who called the development (development). Development is a pattern of individual changes that began in the time of conception and continues throughout life. But not every change in an organism or individual experienced was a progression.

By learning, individual behavior may also change. Likewise for events or factors influence the use of certain medications, individuals may also change. This requires a more detailed explanation of the proposed changes as progress.

First, changes in meaning mainly rooted in the development of biological elements. Experiences or specific activities children can lead to changes in self-concerned. For example, a child who became a skilled dance dance practice; son who is studying maths or numeracy become proficient in a matter of working on the problems. Such changes was not a development, but rather a change in the sense of learning, a change that is more concise and is a direct function of the special experiences that was pursued. Changes in the sense of relating to the development and maturity of the biological function of time resulting in a longer period of time and general nature, not associated with a particular event or experience.

Second, the development could include changes in both the structure and function or the physical and psychological changes. Changes in the structure refers to physical changes in size or shape (such as changes in the arm, leg, muscle, nerve tissue, or other body parts), whereas changes in the function refers to the changes in activity that is inherently present in the physical structure (such as muscle spasticity, moving skills, thinking skills, emotional, and other similar changes). In other words, changes in the structure refers to the change in his body shape, while the functional changes refer to changes in the mental aspect or activity arising in connection with a change in the body.

Third, changes in the sense of progression is patterned, orderly, organized, and predictable. This means that normally, the development of the individual to follow certain patterns that are known and can be estimated. For example, a child will be able to sit up after lying face down, it will crawl after sitting and will run after the crawl.

Fourth, the development may be unique to each individual. Santrock & Yussen (1992: 17) states that: "each of us develops in certain ways like all other individuals, like some other individuals, and like no other individuals". Each of us develop in certain ways like all other individuals, such as some of the other individuals and as no other individual. In addition to the developmental patterns experienced by each individual, the individual variation in child development can happen at any time. This happens because the development itself is a process of change is complex, involving a variety of elements that mutually influence each other.

Fifth, changes in the sense of development occurs gradually over a relatively long period of time. It means that the change in the sense that the development is not a change of character for a moment, but occurs in a continuous process that takes place in a relatively long time.

Sixth, changes in the sense of progression can last a lifetime of starting from the time of conception until death. Development is not only limited to adolescence, but can be continued until the person dies. It also means that changes in the sense of development includes not only the process of growth, maturation, and refinement, but also includes the process of decline and destruction. With the above it can be concluded that the development can be defined as a pattern of change in organisms (people) both in structure and function (physical or psychological) that occur regularly and organized, and last a lifetime.

In addition to the terms of development, there are other terms that are often interchanged use, namely term growth. The term also connotes the growth pattern of the changes experienced by the individual. In fact, both the development and growth of these changes is difficult to separate from each other.

But for the sake of explanation the two terms can be distinguished. The term growth is intended as a change in the physical aspects such as changes in bone structure, height and weight, body proportions, the more perfect the neural network, and the like. In other words, the notion that growth is more quantitative in nature and limited to patterns of physical changes experienced by the individual as a result of the maturation process. In the broadest sense, the term can include changes in the growth of a psychic if something changes in the form of the emergence of new functions such as the emergence of the ability to think symbolically, the emergence of abstract thinking ability.

2. Principles of Development
Individual development takes place throughout life, starting from the time of the meeting with the father of the mother cell (conception) and ends at the time of his death. Individual development is dynamic, change is sometimes slow, but can also quickly, only with respect to one or several aspects of the developmental aspects. Development of each individual is also not always uniform, a good contrast to the other in tempo, rhythm and quality.

In the development of the individual known developmental principles as follows:
1. Development lasts a lifetime and covers all aspects. Development not only with respect to certain aspects but involving all aspects. Certain aspects of development may be seen clearly, while others are more hidden aspects. The developments also continue until the end of his life, only at certain times even slow progress is very slow, whereas at other times very quickly. The course of development of the individual rhythmic and development of each child's rhythm is not always the same.

2. Every child has the speed (tempo) and the development of different quality. A person may have the ability to think and develop social relationships and the tempo is very high in terms of its development was very rapid, being in other aspects such as lack of skills or aesthetic ability and progress has been slow. Conversely, there are children whose skills and aesthetic developed rapidly while thinking skills and social relations rather slow.

3. The development of relatively uniform, follow certain patterns. Developments in terms of something that preceded or precedes other aspects. Children can crawl before you can walk the child, the child can babble before a child can speak, and so on.

4. Development takes place gradually bit by bit. In normal development that proceeds gradually but in certain situations can also occur in leaps and bounds. The opposite can also occur certain aspects of the development bottleneck.

5. Ongoing development of skills that are general to the more specific heading, follow the process of differentiation and integration. Development begins with mastering the abilities of a general nature, such as the ability to hold large objects begins with holding with both hands, and then hold it with one hand but with the fifth finger. The next development was shown to be holding a child with multiple fingers, and FINALLY use her fingertips. In the development of a process of differentiation or decomposition into smaller things and there is also a process of integration. In this integration of some special abilities / small that combine to form a single skill or skills.

6. In normal development of the individual to follow the phase, but because special factors, certain phase passed quickly, making it appear to the outside as it does not go through phases, while the other phase followed by a very slow, so it looks like not growing.

7. Up to certain limits, the development aspect of things can be sped up or slowed. Development is influenced by innate factors and environmental factors. Reasonable conditions of nature and the environment can lead to a reasonable rate of development as well. either excess or lack of innate and environmental factors can lead to a faster rate of growth or slower.

8. Development of certain aspects of running parallel or correlate with other aspects. Development of social skills developed in parallel with language skills, motor skills aligned with observation capabilities and so forth.

9. At certain times and in certain areas of the development of different men with women. At the age of 12-13 years, female children are socially mature faster than men. Physical males generally grow taller than women. Men are more powerful in intellect abilities while women are stronger in language skills and aesthetics.

3. Aspects of Child Development
With respect to the overall personality development of the individual child, because individual personalities to form one integrated whole. In general it can be distinguished several major aspects of the individual child's personality, namely aspects:
1) cognitive
2) physical-motor
3) socio-emotional
4) language
5) moral
6) religious.

The development of each aspect of personality did not always together or parallel, may precede the development of aspects of something or other aspects may also follow. In the early life of the child, which is in the womb and during the first years, the development of physical and motor aspects are very prominent. During the nine months in the womb, the developing baby's physical size of  millimeters to 50 centimeters in length. During the first two years, the helpless baby in the beginning of his birth, has been a small child who can sit, crawl, stand, walk and run even clever, can hold and playing a variety of objects or tools.

1. Cognitive
Cognitive development begins with the development of the ability to observe, see relationships and solve simple problems. Then evolved towards understanding and solving more complex problems. This aspect is growing rapidly at the time the child begins to attend primary school (age 6-7 years). Growing steadily over the study period and peaked pda past high school (age 16-17 years).

According to Piaget, intellectual development of the individual to follow the dynamics of the two processes, namely assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation is the cognitive process in which a person integrates perception, concept or new experiences into existing cognitive structures in his mind. Cognitive structure means any individual knowledge that make up a particular cognitive patterns. So the real cognitive structure is a collection of experiences in individual cognition.

There are two functions in respect of elementary school teachers assimilation process, namely lay the proper foundation of cognitive structures and concepts on child cognition and enrich the cognitive structure becomes more complete and in-depth. The placement of the cognitive structure of right about something on the concept of cognition is important because children in primary education is fundamental for the enrichment and deepening. While the enrichment and deepening of the child's cognitive structure directed towards the expansion of their cognitive horizons.

There are times when people can not assimilate new stimuli or experiences faced by cognitive structures that he has. This inability occurs because new stimuli or experiences that are completely incompatible with the existing structure kognif.
In these circumstances, the individual will make accommodations. There are two possibilities that individuals can do in this situation, namely:
a) forming a new cognitive structure that matches the new stimuli or experiences
b) modifying existing cognitive structures to fit new stimuli or experiences.

According to Piaget, the process of assimilation and accommodation continues in a person.
In cognitive development, a balance between these two processes. Equilibrium is called the equilibrium, ie, self-regulation is necessary to mechanically regulate the balance of assimilation and accommodation.

Piaget divides the development process functions and cognitive behavior into four main stages each stage gave rise to qualitatively different characteristics. Stages of cognitive development that is:
a) the period of sensory motor (0; 0-2; 0)
b) preoperational period (2; 0-7; 0 years)
c) concrete operational period (7; 0-11 or 12; 0 years)
d) formal operational period (11; 0 or 12; 0-14 atau15; 0).

2. Physical
Physical development of children of primary school age follow principles generally accepted concerning: the type of change, patterns of physical growth and developmental characteristics and individual differences. Changes include changes in the proportion of height and weight. In this phase of physical growth of children is ongoing. Children become taller, heavier, stronger, and more to learn various skills. Physical development during this period quite slow but consistent, so it is reasonable to be known as the quiet period.

3. Social
Social development begins in childhood (ages 3-5 years). Children love to play with their peers. Persebayaan this relationship continue and rather rapidly occur in the school (age 11-12 years) and very rapidly during adolescence (16-18 years). Social development in childhood takes place through relationships between friends in a variety of forms of the game.

4. Language
Aspect of developing language begins with imitation of sounds and voices, continued to babble. In the early elementary school years developing the ability to speak the language to understand the social order, solicitation and child relationship with his friends or adults. At the end of primary school developing language knowledge. This development is very closely linked with the development of intellectual and social abilities. Language is a tool for thinking and thinking is a process of seeing and understanding the relationships between things. Language is also a tool to communicate with others, and communication takes place in a social interaction. Thus the development of language skills are also closely linked and mutually supportive to the development of social skills. Language development that runs rapid in the early elementary school years to reach perfection at the end of adolescence.

5. Affective
Developmental aspects of affective or feeling run constant, except in early adolescence (13-14 years) and middle adolescents (15-16 years). In early adolescence is marked by a sense of optimism and joy in his life, interspersed with confusion facing the changes that occur in him. In the middle of adolescence, a sense of fun came and went with sadness, excitement gave way to sadness, a sense of intimate exchange with the estrangement and hostility. The turmoil ended in late adolescence at age 18-21 years.

6. Religious morals
Moral and religious aspects have also evolved since the kids were little. The role of the environment, especially the family environment is very dominant for the development of this aspect. At first children moral or religious acts because imitate, then become act on their own initiative. Initiative act itself was initially done because of the control or supervision of the outside, and then evolved because of the controversy or of itself. The highest level of moral development is doing something immoral act because the call of conscience, without orders, without hope of reward or praise something. Potentially this moral level can be achieved by an individual in late adolescence, but the factors within the individual child and the environment influence on achievement.

4. The development tasks
The development duties according to Robert J. Havighurst are some tasks that appear during a particular time in the life of an individual, which is a success that can bring happiness and make way for the next tasks. Failure will cause disappointment for the individual, rejection by society, and the difficulty of the task of the next progression.

Developmental tasks of childhood is:
1. Learning the necessary physical skills in the game
2. Development of a comprehensive attitude toward oneself as an individual growing
3. Learn to be friends with peers
4. Learning to perform social roles as men and women
5. Learning to master the intellectual skills such as: reading, writing, numeracy
6. Development of concepts necessary in everyday life
7. The development of morals, values ​​and conscience
8. Have social independence
9. Development of attitudes toward social groups and institutions

According to Havighurst each individual stage of development should be in line with the development of other aspects, the physical, psychological and emotional, social and moral. There are two reasons why an important developmental tasks for education. First, it helps clarify the objectives to be achieved school. Education can be understood as an effort by the school community, in helping individuals achieve certain developmental tasks. Second, this concept can be used as a guide for implementing time education efforts. When the individual has reached maturity, ready to accomplish a particular task stage and in accordance with the demands of society, it can be said that the time to teach the individual concerned has arrived. When teaching at the right time so that optimal learning outcomes can be achieved.

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