KARYA ILMIAH TENTANG LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
reforestation can prevent water crisis
Topic: Reforestation as the Clean Water Crisis Prevention
Water is the most important part of the human life cycle. Without water, humans can not survive. Humans can last two to three weeks without food, but can not survive without drinking for two to 3 days. Water includes water lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater. Greatest usefulness of lakes, rivers, oceans, and ground water is for agricultural irrigation, drinking water raw materials, potentially even as a tourist attraction. However, at this point a lot of water contamination. Water pollution is water state changes due to human activities. Water pollution is very alarming if it occurs in ground water is a very important source of water for living things. Ground water has a role in maintaining the balance of water and availability of raw materials.
Therefore we as humans are supposed to maintain balance and water availability. Availability of ground water can be maintained with water conservation measures. Water conservation can be done by performing a reforestation efforts or so-called reforestation. Reforestation is very important to do because of the depletion of ground water, especially water. Because their numbers are dwindling, the authors lift the title this time Reforestation as Groundwater Crisis Prevention.
There are many issues that affect groundwater crisis. In this paper the issues to be raised as follows:
1. What steps should be taken to prevent a water crisis?
2. If reforestation is the right step to prevent the water crisis?
Rests on the extent of the problem, this article are intended:
1. To find out the steps to be taken to prevent water crisis.
2. To find out if reforestation is the right step to prevent a water crisis.
II. Contents / Discussion
A. Steps to Prevent Water Crisis
Lately, the use of ground water is increasing rapidly from year to year, even in some places the level of exploitation has reached a dangerous level. Therefore, groundwater must be maintained and preserved its existence. Need for cooperation between government and the community in order to conserve groundwater. But many people will not realize that. Much part of the community who just took the water but did not think to keep the purity of the water or soil. If the ground water is not conserved could cause pollution and will even lead to groundwater crisis.
Natural phenomena, including the cause of pollution is natural, but natural phenomena can not be blamed. Not only because of the natural phenomenon of water become polluted, but because the act of a human being careless and do not care about the environment, especially water. Such as household waste and industrial waste in the river. As an example of the polluted river water in the river Cengkareng. The color of the river water into a black indicates that the river water has been polluted. Here actually can be indicated if the rivers are polluted waste. So is the water in the surrounding soil. When the water became polluted soil, water availability is thinning. If not immediately addressed, the problem of ground water will be a time bomb that will harm many people. The Government should take immediate steps to tackle the water crisis. The community should also participate in the response to the soil water crisis. To overcome the water crisis, it is necessary to water conservation. Water conservation can be done by:
1. Conservation agronomist
A method in land management using plants as soil conservation media. Soil contained plant roots bind and retain water serves as ground water or water reserves season can reduce runoff.
a. Cover crops are plants that have been deliberately planted to protect the soil from erosion, increase soil organic matter, and soil as well as increase productivity. So it can be a balancing available water in the soil.
b. The use of mulch is to use crop residues (crop residues) were sown on the surface of the ground, so as to inhibit the rate of water at the soil surface.
c. Reforestation (reforestation) is a suitable way to reduce erosion and run-off, especially if it is done on the upper reaches of the catchment area to manage flooding.
2. Mechanical conservation
Is a management method that uses the conservation of soil and rock in the ground. So that water covered by soil and stones can slow the flow of water to the surface, and store it in the soil. In this method, plants also play a role in soil conservation ..
Various mechanical engineering, namely:
a. Terrace ridges that lineup that features grass mounds and mounds amplifier drains on the slope above. Pile of soil mounds are made elongated in the direction of the contour lines or cut slopes. Can be applied to the soil by infiltration / high permeability and somewhat shallow soils with slopes of 10-30%.
b. Patio bench or stairs made by cutting slopes and leveling the ground so as to form a row of stairs / bench with flat types (land area of flat land), tilted to the outside (area of land sloping towards the original slope), tilted to the (area of land sloping in the opposite direction original slope), and irrigation (usually applied on rice fields, because there is a water-retaining embankments).
c. Rorak is a hole or cross-cut slopes made that serve to accommodate and absorb water runoff.
d. Reservoir is a building that serves as a water reservoir surface water runoff and harvesting rainwater. Useful to provide water during the dry season.
e. Mulches are materials (crop remnants, plastic, etc.) are distributed or used to cover the soil surface.
f. Dam trench is a way to collect or stem the flow of water in a trench in order to accommodate the flow of surface water, so it can be used to irrigate the surrounding land.
3. Chemically conservation
Is a management method that utilizes soil conditioner or soil stabilizer materials in terms of improving soil structure so that the land will remain resistant to erosion and soil can hold water pretty well. Chemicals as soil conditioner has a huge influence on the stability of soil aggregates. Influence the long term because these compounds are resistant to soil microbes.
B. Reforestation as a Water Crisis Prevention
This study focused on one of the steps involved in agronomic conservation, reforestation or afforestation back that will restore forest functions. Because the forest has a very important role in soil water availability. Reforestation is a suitable way to reduce erosion and run-off, especially if it is done on the upper reaches of the catchment area.
Reforestation is the right step to prevent a water crisis. That's because the plant can hold and lock the water in the soil. Conservation efforts, the selected plants have several requirements, among others: has a strong root system, deep, and wide, thus forming a dense network of roots, grow quickly, so as to cover the ground in a short time, have economic value, either wood or by-products, and can improve the quality or soil fertility.
Based on the discussion above, it can be summed up as follows:
1. Steps should be taken to prevent water crisis is the conservation of water, either with conservation agronomist, mechanical, and chemical.
2. Reforestation is the right step to prevent a water crisis.
The advice that I can say is:
1. Need for socialization about water conservation from the government.
2. The government should address water pollution occurs immediately before the clean water crisis.
3. Need for cooperation between government and the community in addressing groundwater contamination
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