KUMPULAN MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG BUDAYA


CULTURE JAVA AND EXISTENCE

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


A. Background
Java is part of the archipelago's most populousHomeland. Java itself is divided into provinces of Banten, West Java, Jakarta, Central Java, Yogyakarta, and East Java. Besides densely populated Java is also rich in cultural treasures, because of each of these provinces have a culture, traditions, and backgrounds different.

Today the continuity of culture on the island of Java is increasingly threatened its existence, especially with the lack of modernization, globalization, and technological advances that lead to the more easily the pervasiveness of foreign culture that is very likely to damage the culture.

Is increasingly apparent that there is no doubt our culture is increasingly eliminated. Youth is more inclined towards western culture and the less people who are concerned with their ancestral culture.

B. Problem Formulation

(2) How does this present existence?
(3) What is causing threat to the existence of Javanese culture?

(4) what are the steps we have to do to keep the existence of
       Javanese culture?

C. Destination
This paper aims to increase public knowledge about the culture and to arouse them to love their culture.

D. Expected Outcomes
The paper is structured so that more people will understand Javanese culture "Central" which became their ancestral culture, in addition to the increasing public awareness of their culture is the ultimate goal. With the awareness of each individual community will be able to greatly assist the persistence of our culture, because consciousness will move their hearts to love their culture. Thus, it will encourage them to always strive to maintain its existence, so the existence of this culture will continue to be maintained.

E. Review of Literature
Culture or cultures derived from the Sanskrit buddhayah, which is the plural form of the buddhi (mind or intellect) is defined as the things pertaining to the mind and human reason.

Culture is defined as the whole of human knowledge as a social creature who used to understand and interpret their experiences and become the foundation for his behavior.

A culture belong together members of the community or a social group, which spread and inheritance to their members that the next generation is done through a process of learning and using the symbols embodied in the form of tacit or otherwise (including a variety of equipment made by them).

Javanese civilization was formed in Java is a moral rule that therapy religious elements. For the Javanese, the myth is a system of ideas that is used as "a way to explain the world".

Held two congresses to restore Kejayan Javaneseculture. The first congress, congress Javanese literature (KSJ) held in Solo (6-7 July 2009). The second congress, Javanese Language Congress (KBJ) was held in the heart of Javanese culture, Yogyakarta (15 to 21 July 2009).

F. Method of Approach

To seek resolution of the existing formulation of the problem, then we make the observation of the problems that occur in the community through the phenomena that occur in the daily life of the community and from the internet. And to provide output then we find appropriate solutions to overcome existing problems.

G. Javanese culture and Existence
1. Cultural Origins of Java
"In Greek notes, written Claucius Ptolemy (in 165 AD) the term labadiou (Yavadvipa) is used to refer to the island of Java, which roughly translates to is an island located in the far southeastern rich rice.

Njowo used as an expression to define the behavior of others, or in other words it is understood njowo; understand; ethical according to the (cultural) Java.
Indonesia's oldest civilization recorded in the course of the travelers-travelers (merchants from China and India) the past is Sakanagara (1st century AD) itself is located on the west coast of the island of Java, in the vicinity of Pandeglang. Of this community was born Taramarajuk (4th century AD). While in the central part of the island of Java, starting with the oldest civilizations in the kingdom of Kalinga (6th century AD). Then to the eastern part of Java island, first recorded civilization was the discovery of royal inscriptions Kanjuruhan Dinoyo (760 years) is written with letters of Ancient Javanese (Kawi). Then proceed with the empire founded by MPU Spoon, the last king of the Sanjaya dynasty of Mataram's ruling in the 9th century AD, who moved the capital of empire further east on the banks of the Brantas River. Allegedly due to the eruption of Mount Merapi disaster.

From the above it can be concluded "theoldest civilization ever recorded on the island of Java, starting from west toeast". There is also a most fitting form of syncretism and harmony between Islamic theology-Hindu-Buddhist-and Java ".

2. Various Kinds of Art in Javanese Culture

Culture contained in Java is very diverse, but here we will discuss about the culture of Central Java is better known by the people of Indonesia with Javanese culture. Central Java is one of the provinces on the island of Java, which has a very diverse cultural areas.

Central Java is one of the top ten tourist destinations in Indonesia can be easily reached from all directions by land, sea, or air. The province also has gone through a long history of ancient times to the present.

In Central Java, all kinds of art grow and develop properly, and this can be seen in the existing relics now.

3. Architecture Art Central Java
Central Java in general the main building and the other buildings around him as a whole is a residential complex called "Padepokan Central Java", the art of building and SyailendrawangsaSanjayawangsa era. Central Java is also known as "The Island of Temples" because it is in Central Java temples scattered.

Great Hall in the form "Joglo Trajumas", 4 sustained extensive roof Soko Guru (main mast), 12 Soko Goco, and 20 Soko Rowo. All of which makes the building look impressive "Momot", meaning capable of accommodating all respects, in accordance with its function as a place to receive guests. Great Hall connected with a"pringgitan", originally as a ringgit or shadow puppet performances. This Pringgitan pyramid architecture. Another building is the traditional house form "Joglo Editorial Mangkurat", "Joglo musicians", and the character of "Doro Gepak".

4. Dances of Central Java

Javanese dance has many functions in the life of society. In addition to the entertainment, some of the other dances also has a sacred function that is presented in the inauguration of the kings and respect. The Javanese dance dance the valuable intangible, sacred, and the Java religius.Tari many kinds. The dance including the following: (1) dance Srimpi, (2) dance Bedaya Ketawang, (3) wireng, (4) prawirayudha, (5) and (6) Horses dance. In Mangkunegaran called Langendriyan dance, which took Damarwulan story.

The famous dance in Solo Kraton include Srimpi and Bedaya Ketawang. According to the book Wredhapradhangga is regarded as the creator of the dance Bedaya Ketawang is Sultan Agung (1613-1645) who served as the first king of Mataram kingdom. This dance is not only displayed during the inauguration of the king but also displayed once a year when the days are great and royal ceremonies.

 The set Ketawang Bedaya dance and dancers names in the following order: Batak, Endhel Ajeg, Endhel Weton, Apit ngarep, Apit buri, Gulu, Dhada, and Boncit.

While Kasunanan Pakubuwono also created dances, the dance Srimpi. These dances depict a war between two warriors. Srimpi types of dance including: Srimpi Padelori, Andhong-Andhong, Arjuna Mangsah, Dhempel Sangopati, Elo-elo, near to, Gambir Sawit, Muncar, Gandokusuma, and Srimpi Lobong. There are also modern Javanese dance is usually presented as a celebration, including: (1) dance Gambyong, (2) Peacock dance, (3) Puppet dance, (4) dance Gambiranom, (5) dance Minak Jingggo, (6) Karonsih dance, (7) dance gandrung Ghatotkacha, and others. Tayub also one of Javanese dance usually displayed in the celebration.

5. Acting Ketoprak

Ketoprak is one of the regional culture ofCentral Java, which is where the art is played by a group of people to take the role and character of the figures from folklore tales of Java. The story that is often raised in Ketoprak Ramayana and Mahabharata, which tells the story of all of the good will always win against
Because that's why the Java community has an attitude "andap asor", a gentle, welcoming, manners, and full of philosophy.

6. Puppet

Puppet is one of the storytelling tradition in Central Java which still continues to this day the most developed and well-known to all corners .Wayang is one of Javanese art which still exist to this day.

Art of puppetry is often presented in celebration. Puppet is not much different from the Ketoprak. If Ketoprak played by humans, while the characters in the puppet played with a property called puppet itself to form a kind of miniature human figures depicted in accordance with nature and made of leather. Puppet is run by a dhalang.

Some of the tools used in the puppet of which is: "color" (background in the form of the screen in the form of white cloth), "blencong" (a kind of light is used to enhance the yng to strengthen the atmosphere of the story), "debog" (banana stem used as a place to stick the puppets to be played), "mobile" and "kepyak" (a kind of tool for creating sound accompaniment when puppet run).

7. Tracks Central Java

Intellectual culture in the land of Java in the past can be said was already high, this proved many literary works were written, although the form of the song (literary sekar) macapat which also turned out to have standard rules, which will appear when we learned the value- high intellectual value.

Another prominent characteristic of these works is a mystical value, so read their work as if we are just going to uncover the repertoire of myths that are not rational. In fact, if carefully considered many of their works that contain conclusive information.

Central Java has a track area, which is divided into: (1) song dolanan (Ilir-Ilir, Cublak-Cublak Suweng, Gundhul hoe, etc.), (2) macapat (Maskumambang, Pocung, Gambuh, Megatruh, Mijil, Kinanthi, Durma, pickaxe, Asmaradana, Sinom, and Dhandanggula), and (3) the creation of the piece of Java (modern).

8. Music Art Central Java

Javanese music called gamelan is often used to accompany the piece-the piece and dance, consisting of gender, demung, bonang, bonang successor, xylophone, gong, kempul, kethuk, kenong, saron, peking, zither, fiddle, flute, and drums. Each has a different function, which leads voice is the lead fiddle while "sampak" (Tempo) is the drums.

The Javanese gamelan is one style of gamelan that exist in Central Java and East Java and partly Yoyakarta. Javanese gamelan music of the gamelan is different from other regions. If the Javanese gamelan generally have a softer tone and use a slower tempo, different from Balinese gamelan has a faster tempo and gamelan music Sundha which dominated lilting voice and flute.

Javanese Gamelan also have rules that are standard among consists of several "Puteran and pathet" (high and low tones). Also there are rules "sampak" (tempo) and "gong" (melody) all of which consisted of four tones. While the play gamelan called "Panayagan" or "nayaga" and the sing called "singer" (wiraswara or swarawati).

9. Central Java language

Most Javanese culture inherent in every society is personal Java language. Every day anywhere and anytime they always apply. From small children to adults can use it fluently, although only a fraction of those who truly master the Java language, because the Java language has levels in its use. These levels cause not all of them can be controlled by either. Javanese language consists inggil manners, manners alus, innocent manners, manners middle, and ngoko.

Krama inggil usually used as the language of the MC celebration, manners Alus used when talking to people who are respected, while ngoko used in conversations between people close to or commonly used by parents to talk with their children, or by adults to people under the age of them and dialogue among peers. This diversity adds richness Javanese culture, but it also actually makes communities are reluctant to implement it.

10. Existence of Javanese Culture

Behind the richness and grandeur of Javanese culture, Javanese cultural survival is increasingly threatened with extinction. The fewer the people who are aware of the culture itself. Most of them are also less familiar with the culture, this has resulted in the lack of awareness of the culture and also the desire to keep it low.

This is evident, because many of those who do not understand and do not want to know their own culture, more than happy with the foreign culture that considered "cool." Many of the people who would prefer to wear the foreign products, foreign ideas were considered to develop modern, and it This was also struck in the language they use to communicate. The fact that this is happening now, many of the local youth who forget their culture. A lot of teens are no longer controlled by either Java language.

The longer the Javanese culture eroded by age, seen from a fact or maybe even our own experience as teachers teach Javanese songs just laughed at by students people assume control of culture is not important, they assume this is the outdated and antiquated , and hamper progress.
11. Which causes erosion of Javanese Culture

Globalization go hand in hand and scientific progress, in addition to bringing advances in personal youth and every element of society, globalization is also having a devastating effect on the culture. Cultural existence is threatened, because people who feel the progress of time had always assumed that the local culture is not important because it is in their minds is how to be able to continue to follow the progress of science and technology that occurred.

The irony is not just a bad influence on people's attitudes, but also penetrated into their souls then embedded firmly and then master them. So beating them in a civilized consciousness.

One of the other major cause is because the government no longer enter into the Java language education curriculum 1975. It was not until ten years later was why young people can not master the Javanese culture and manners, on the other hand not a few foreign nationals will be amazed and very antosias Javanese culture as well as to be able to compete and learn the culture of Java.

It's a harsh reality that must be accepted. But it should not go unpunished. Enough pride not only lip service, but must be proved by concrete actions, which we shall maintain and preserve our culture.

Apparently because of the existence of Javanese culture that increasingly held two congresses to restore. The first congress, congress Javanese literature (KSJ) held in Solo (6-7 July 2009).

Although not able to produce the results thatconcrete, Java eighty writers in attendance seemed quite satisfied. The second congress, Javanese Language Congress (KBJ) was held in the heart of Javanese culture, Yogyakarta (15 to 21 July 2009).

Culture is an identity that will make us survive. Survive not by fighting but by receiving. Received varying that will always be present in the turnaround times. And there is hope, because there are a lot of kids who learn about the culture them.And they will learn a lot through the heroic stories that will affect their future decisions.

Many ways we can not less funds required in this case, but if it must be paid with the loss of a culture that is not going to worth it.

With established studios will greatly assist in maintaining this culture Foster interest in the community is the first step we have to do. Next will be a chore for us all, which took part in it.

For those who have the ability to contribute their labor as a coach in the dance studio for example. As a vocal teacher, we can also preserve the culture by teaching songs of Java in the classroom.

In everyday life we ​​can preserve this culture by applying the Java language and well in the school environment by inserting subjects Java language is a right step. Because like it or not a student will be required to learn the Javanese culture.

We do not want to lose to foreigners who antosias studying our culture, because if we get complacent then this will only backfire for us all. A fact Reog Ponorogo in East Java native culture dihak patented by Malaysia, and many other little things that it should be an honor for us.

First we have to lose is recognized by the Japanese tempeh, Reog by Malaysia, and many were robbed of our identity. This is an insult and a blow to us. Therefore we have to keep these things not to happen again for the second time.

There is a proverb "There is no ivory that is not cracked," This is a proverb that sums up the state of our culture today. However, if treated  ivory can be used as decoration, cultural Similarly, if we mindfulness and sincerity maintain sustainability then this culture will remain intact sustainability, beauty, and so that we can enjoy until the end.

Make this culture to continue and still exist, so that future generations will still be able to enjoy the beautiful culture, noble, and charming. We should be proud to have this culture, because culture is not only famous to the world, but also an asset that is so remarkable.

Every culture without sustained political power will not last. Instead of political power takes our identity. By utilizing a particular culture, a regime of power has an identity. Here culture into a tool of government intervention is needed in this regard.

H. Conclusion
By knowing and understanding the culture, then the public will be moved to love and preserve their culture. If ownership has grown, so they will not ever want to lose their culture. So they will try hard to keep the culture of all things that threaten the existence of the culture and they would always try to preserve it.

We must strive to find a way out of this problem, so that we all can continue to maintain its sustainability. Thus our next generation can still enjoy this beautiful culture.

So kekhasanahan nation's culturewill also stay awake until the end. Because keeping the local culture as well as the country's cultural.
And this is a manifestation of our love for the homeland.

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