KUMPULAN ARTIKEL BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG ISLAM BUDAYA



ARTIKEL BAHASA INGGRIS ISLAM DAN BUDAYA

Islam is the religion revealed to man as the grace of the universe. His teachings always bring benefit to human life in this world. Allah himself has stated this, as mentioned in (Surah Toha: 2): "We did not lose this Qur'an be hard". It means that human beings are willing to follow the guidance of the Qur'an, will be guaranteed by God that their lives will be happy and prosperous world and the hereafter. Instead anyone who defied the teachings of Islam and to deny this, surely he will have a narrow life and suffering.
Islamic teachings are full of benefits for these people, of course, covers all aspects of human life. No forms of activity humans do, but God has put rules in Islamic teachings. Culture is one of the trivial side of human life, and has been set limits and give- below attempts to explain the relation between Islam and culture. Although short hopefully contribute to the notion of Islamic heritage.
Meaning and Nature of Culture
In the Big Indonesian Dictionary terms. 149, states that "culture" is the mind, the intellect, customs. Being "culture" is the result of the activities and the creation of mind (intellect) humans, such as beliefs, arts and customs. Sociologists define culture with overall proficiency (customs, morals, art, science, etc.). Moderate  historians interpret as heritage or traditions. Even experts Antropogi see culture as a system of life, way of life, and behavior. These definitions indicate that the very broad range of cultures. For ease of discussion, Ernst Cassirer divided into five aspects: 1. Spiritual Life 2. Language and  3. Art 4. History 5. Science.
Spiritual aspects of life, including physical culture, as a means (temples, ancestor sculpture, architecture), equipment (clothing, food, tools ceremony). Also includes social systems, such as ceremonies (birth, marriage, death)
The aspects of language and include local language, rhymes, poems, novels.
Aspects of the arts can be divided into two major parts; visual arts and performing arts, which include; visual arts (painting), performing arts (dance, music,) Theatre (puppet) Architecture Art (houses, buildings, boats). Aspects include science scince (exact sciences) and the humanities (literature, philosophy and history culture).
Relationship between Islam and Culture
To determine the extent of the relationship between religion (including Islam) with a culture, we need to answer the following question: why do people tend to maintain the culture, from whence the insistence that moved men to work, think and act? What drives them to nature and the environment is always changing it for the better?
Most experts consider that culture is a dynamic cultural tendency to divine. In fact according to Hegel, the overall work realized in the form of human science, the rule of law, constitutional, art, and philosophy is none other than realisasidiri process of divine spirits. In contrast to some experts, like Pater January Bakker, in his "Philosophy of Culture" states that there is no relationship between religion and culture, as he argues, that religion is a belief in spiritual life of adherents, in response to a divine call. This belief is called Faith, and Faith is a gift of God, the human being is the work culture. So they can not be found. As according to the anthropologist, as expressed by Drs. Heddy S. A. Son, MA that religion is a cultural element. It was, as the anthropologist said that humans have the mind and have a knowledge system that is used to interpret a variety of symptoms as well as religious symbols. Human understanding is very limited and not able to reach the essence of the verses in the scriptures of each religion. They can only interpret the sacred texts in accordance with existing capabilities.
This is where,, that religion has been the result of human culture. Various religious behavior, according to experts antropogi, is not regulated by the verses of the holy book, but by their interpretations of the sacred texts. From the description above, it can be concluded that the culture experts have a different opinion on the view the relationship between religion and culture. The first group considers that religion is the source of cultures or in other words that the culture is the real form of the religion itself. This opinion is represented by Hegel. The second group, which was represented by Father January Bakker, assume that culture has nothing to do with religion. And the third group, GCC assumes that religion is part of culture itself.
To see people and their culture, Islam is not looked at from one side only. Islam considers that humans have two important elements, namely earth elements and elements of soul that God breathed into his body. This is clearly visible in the Word of God as-Sajda Qs 7-9: "(Allah) is He Who began the creation of man from clay, then He made his seed from an extract of despicable water yan (semen). He refined and then breathed into (the body) of his spirit (creation) His "In addition to creating man, Allah Almighty also created beings called Angels, which is only capable of doing good deeds alone, because it was created from light elements. And also create a Satanic or devil can only do evil, as been created from fire. While humans, as mentioned above, is a combination of the two elements of the creature.
In a hadith mentioned that this man had two prompter; whispers of angels, as a application of the elements of a soul breathed God, and whispers of Shaytan, as an application of the elements of the soil. Both elements are present in the human body, and the conflicting pull. When people do good deeds and good deeds, then the element wins angels, otherwise when people do immoral, adulterous and make mischief in the earth, the elements of a winning syetanlah. Therefore, in addition to providing sustenance, the willingness and ability in the form of hearing, sight and hearts, God also gives instructions and guidelines, so that people are able to use such pleasure to worship and do good on this earth.
God has given to man an ability and freedom to work, think and create a culture. Here, Islam recognizes that culture is a human creation. Being religious is a gift of God for the benefit of the man himself. That is a gift of God to man to direct and guide the works of man to make it worthwhile, has a positive value and elevate human dignity. Islam teaches Muslims to always do good and work, to always use the God-given mind to cultivate the natural world into something useful for human benefit. Thus, Islam has acted as a spur man to "cultured". And at one time put the Islam that rules, norms and guidelines. Up here, it may be said that the culture itself, derived from religion. Theory like this, it seems closer to what Hegel stated above.
Cultural attitudes towards Islam
Islam, as has been described above, it comes to organizing and guiding communities toward a good and balanced life. Thus Islam is not come to destroy the culture that has embraced a society, but at the same time Islam desires that mankind is far and avoid things that are not useful and bring madlarat in his life, so that Islam needs to align and guide culture that developed in the community towards the civilized culture and and heightens the degree of humanity.

This principle, actually animate the contents of Law of the State of Indonesia, article 32, although in practice, and there are differences of detail is striking. In the explanation of article 32 of the Constitution, stated: "Business culture must progress toward culture and unity, with no new material rejected from a foreign culture to develop or enrich the national culture itself, and heightens the degree of humanity of Indonesia".
From there, Islam has divided culture into three kinds:
First: Culture is not against Islam.
In fiqh rules stated: "al adatu muhakkamatun" means that the customs and habits of a society, which is a part of human culture, have an influence on the determination of the law. But it should be noted, that the rule only applies to things that do not exist in syareat provisions, such as the size of the levels of dowry in marriage, in the people of Aceh, for example, the family usually women, to determine the amount of dowry around 50-100 grams gold. In the culture of Islam Shah-Shah, because Islam does not determine the size of the dowry that must be given to women. Determine the shape of the mosque building, allowed the architecture of Persia, or Javanese Joglo architecture.
For things that have been defined in the terms and Islam, the customs and habits of a society should not be used as a legal standard. An example is what was written by Ahmad Baaso in a newspaper stating that interfaith marriage is allowed in Islam on the grounds of "al adatu muhakkamatun" because of inter-religious marriage has become a culture of a society, then it is permissible to the basic rules above. Such statements are not true, because Islam has determined that a Muslim woman is not allowed to marry a pagan.
Second: Cultural elements are partially contradictory to Islam, then in the "reconstruction" so be Islami. most obvious, is the tradition of Ignorance who perform the Hajj in ways that are contrary to the teachings of Islam, as lafadh "Talbiyah" is loaded with shirk , Thowaf in the Ka'bah naked. Islam came to the cultural a form of "worship" predefined rules. Another example is the Arab culture for poetry Ignorance. By Islam culture is retained, but reconstructed it to fit with the values ​​of Islam.
Third: Culture is contrary to Islam.
Like, the culture of "cremation" is done by the people of Bali. Ie cremation ceremony held in a festive atmosphere and vibrant nightlife, and massive. This is done as a form of improvement for the dead to return to the creator. Ceremony of this kind requires a very large cost. The same was done by the people of Central Kalimantan with culture "tiwah", a cremation. The difference, in "tiwah" funeral was conducted in the form of canoe first. Then when it came time, the remains will be exhumed to be burnt again. The ceremony lasted until a week or more. The organizers must provide food and beverages in large quantities, as witnessed by the residents of the villages in a large area. In the Toraja region, to bury the dead yan, also requires huge cost. The funds were used to hold animals for sacrifice in the form of a buffalo. Another made by communities Cilacap, Central Java. They have a culture of "Tumpeng Rosulan", in the form of the food offered to God and the Prophet another cone, which is dedicated to Nyai Roro Kidul is a ruling by the local community southern Ocean (Indian Ocean).
The things above are some examples of cultures that are contrary to the teachings of Islam, so Muslims are not allowed to follow. Islam forbade him, because the culture as it is a culture that does not lead to progress , and unity, and not increase the degree of humanity of Indonesia, on the contrary it is a culture that degrades humanity. Because it contains the teachings of squandering treasure for things that are unnecessary and humiliating people who have died.
In this case al-Kamal Ibn al Himam, one of the great scholars of the Shafi'i Hanafi said: "Verily the texts syareat much stronger than tradition, because tradition could have been a falsehood that has been agreed upon, such as what part of our society today , which has a tradition of putting candles and lamps in particular cemetery on the nights of Eid. 're Nash syareat, having proved to-autentikannya, then it may not contain a falsehood. And because of the tradition, the people who believe in it is binding, binding syare'at nash human being as a whole., Then nash much stronger. And also, because of the tradition of texts allowed through intermediaries, such as in the hadith: "what is stated by good Muslims, then it is a good thing"
From there, it is clear that what is stated by Dr. Abdul Hadi, a lecturer at the Faculty of Philosophy and Civilization Paramadina University, Jakarta, that Islam should not be hostile or remodel the local culture, but should position them as the verses of God in this world or jurisprudence is inadequate to understand the art, is not true. Allaah knows best By DR. Zain An Najah.

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