KUMPULAN CONTOH ARTIKEL BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG EVALUASI SISTEM DALAM PPSI



 EVALUATION SYSTEM IN PPSI


A. OBJECTIVES, FUNCTIONS AND TYPES OF EVALUATION
1. Evaluation objectives
Objective evaluation of students in schools that use teaching system ITS (Instructional Systems Development Procedure) can basically be classified into four categories:
1) Provide feedback (feedback) to the teacher as a basis to improve the program or the process of teaching and learning unit.

2) Determine the results of students' progress, among others, useful as a reports to parents (report cards charging), determination of the increase in class, and determining whether or not a student pass.

3) Put the students in the teaching-learning situations appropriate (eg in the determination of the level, class, or department), in accordance with the level of ability or other characteristics of the students.

4) Know the background of psychological, physical, and environmental students, especially those experiencing learning difficulties, to be used as a basis for further improvement and coaching.

Aim at no.1 and 2 are the responsibility of the teacher, while the No. 3 and 4 performed and required by guidance and counseling officers.

2. Type and Function Evaluation
In schools that have run ITS teaching system, in accordance with the above objectives, the type and function evaluation can be classified as follows:
1) Formative assessment, the assessment conducted at the end of each lesson unit, and functions to improve the teaching and learning process or repair the unit lesson program.

2) Summative assessment, the assessment is conducted each quarter or semester (after students complete a unit or part of a particular subject), is used to determine the number or student learning outcomes in certain stages.

3) Assessment placement (placement) which serves to place the students in the teaching-learning situations appropriate (goal no.3).

4) The diagnostic assessment, works to help solve students' learning difficulties (no.4 purposes).

B. HOW, TECHNIQUES, AND TYPE OF ASSESSMENT STANDARDS
1. Method and Assessment Techniques
1) How to assess
In the assessment there are two ways that can be taken, namely:
a. Quantitative Method (vote in numbers) such as 6, 7, 45, 85.
b. Qualitative way (declaration form) as well, just, moderate, and less.

2) Valuation techniques
Engineering assessment may take the form of teaching in schools:
a. Engineering test form, is used to assess the ability of students covering aspects of knowledge, skills, attitudes, special talents (language aptitude, flair techniques etc.) and general aptitude (intelligence). Test forms include achievement test such as essay tests, objective tests, true-false, multiple choice, matching and completion.

b. Forms of non-test techniques to assess attitudes, interests, and personality of the students; may be used for interviews, questionnaires, and observations.

2. Types of Assessment Standards
There are two standard types of assessment that can be used by teachers in the assessment process:
a. Absolute standards: outcomes of each student compared to previously established criteria.
b. Relative standards: outcomes of each student compared to the norm group, the results achieved by other students in the same group (norm-referenced evaluation).

C. TEST PRINCIPLE AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION
Assessment of student learning outcomes require the use of intensive teacher-made tests. Standardized tests are often less sensitive to assess the achievement of specific instructional objectives for certain classes.
1. Different types of tests
Judging from the shape of its implementation, the test can be divided into 3 types, namely:
- Written test
- Oral test, and
- Test action (performance test)

2. The forms of the test item
Various forms of the test items to assess specific instructional goals (ICT) in the teaching system of ITS (formative test), and to determine the number or student learning outcomes in certain stages (summative tests), can be divided into two groups, namely the form description (essay tests) and the form of objective (objective test).

D. HOW TO ASSESS AND TEST TEST FORMATIVE summative
1. How to Assess Formative Test
1) Standard Test Results and How to Treat
By using the absolute standard in this test, aimed to determine the extent to which specific instructional objectives have been achieved by students and not to know the status suswa compared to other students in the same class.

How to process the results of the test:
a. Processing to obtain the percentage number of students who failed in every matter.
b. Processing to get the results achieved in the test each student as a whole in terms of the percentage of satisfactory answer.
By the formula: S = R / N x 100
Description:
S = the expected value (searchable)
R = total score of items or questions were answered correctly
N = maximum score of the test

2) Use of Test Results
a. Implications of the results of processing each question
To assign the result of processing each question should be followed by the following provisions:
1) If the majority of students (approximately 60% or more) failed in doing a particular matter, need to be restarted teaching materials related to the matter or the item for all classes.

2) If less than 60% of students who fail megerjakan a matter or a particular item, repeat back material relating to that question can be done independently by the student with the guidance and direction of teachers.

b. Implications of the results of the processing of each student
Taking into account the results of research that has been done in the field of mastery learning, to establish the results of the processing of each student used the following provisions:
1) If the results achieved by the students in the test is 75% or more, the student has mastered the material can be considered relevant lessons and is ready to join the program next lesson or unit.

2) When the results of students who achieved less than 75%, the student can still be allowed to join the program or unit next lesson, but the students need to be given special attention or assistance in connection with the difficulties that are still going through.

2. How to Assess Summative Tests
Summative tests are usually held each semester. Function is a summative tests to assess student performance, to which the student mastery of the lesson material that has been taught for a certain period. Their role, among others, is to fill a report card, class ascension determination, and the determination of graduation - whether or not students at the school final exam.

1) Behavioral Aspects Assessed
Given that the summative assessment conducted to assess the long-term outcome of a process of teaching and learning, behavior aspects assessed include aspects of capabilities (knowledge, keeterampilan) as well as aspects of values ​​and attitudes are viewed as learning outcomes. However, this paper will be more focused discussion on the assessment of learning outcomes assessment in the form of capabilities that can be done to use traditional teacher-made tests.

2) Summative Test Preparation
Given this assessment is done at the end of a long unit of study, testing should be focused on assessing the viability higher, adjusted for general instructional purposes. When the memory aspect is necessary, care should be taken so that the proportion is smaller than the aspects of higher ability (comprehension and application).

3) Standards and How to Treat Summative Test Results
a. Standards used
Although summative assessment may use that absolute standard, usually people are more likely to use a relative norm. By using the relative norm, the results achieved better describe student status compared to her classmates. For charging report card, diploma, and so on., The norm is considered relatively more suitable for use.

b. How to cultivate a summative test results
The processing of the raw score (raw score) into a value scale 1-10 by drafting a frequency distribution, find or calculate the average (mean) and standard deviation (DS), and then transform the raw scores into grades scale of 1 -10.

To menskornya should use scoring formulas that apply to each form item.
True-false, S = R - W
Multiple choice, S = R.W/n-1
Fill-in, completion, and matching, S = R
Essay, with the weighting (weighting) for each item

Description:
S = score expected or sought
R = the number of items answered right (Right)
W = the number of items answered wrong (Wrong)
n = number option (alternative answers)
1 = number remains

E. DETERMINATION grades
It has been explained that the actual formative assessment aims to obtain feedback in order to improve the learning process and to assess the extent to which the achievement of students to instructional objectives that have been defined in each program unit lesson. Thus, the actual results of the formative assessment should not be included to determine grades. And to ensure the sustainability assessment so that the assessment results become more reliable (reliable) for each student, in addition to summative assessment tests are usually done at the end of the quarter or the end of the semester, the teacher should be doing anyway subsumatif tests at certain stages (eg once a week or once a month) during the quarter or the semester.

Subsumatif test results is then combined with the summative value to fill in report cards. The trick is to average the average yield subsumatif test and summative test scores

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