BASIC CONCEPT PAPER PROFESSIONALISM
Education is a conscious effort to deliberately drafted to achieve those objectives. In an effort to improve the quality of educational resources, teacher is a human resources component that must be nurtured and developed constantly. Formation of the teaching profession is carried out through pre-service education programs and in-service programs. Guru is one example of the kind of profession, profession is a job that requires training and mastery of a specialized knowledge. A person who has a particular profession, called professionals. However, the term is also used for the professionals who get paid an activity, as opposed to the word of the amateur. Being a professional in a profession that demands eventually were able to improve the quality of professionalism that we have.
- To learn more about the profession
- To know the criteria for a job as a profession
- Knowing more about the basic concepts of professionalism
C. Problem Formulation
- Is it a profession?
- What are the criteria for a job as a profession?
- What about the basic concept of professionalism is that?
A. Definition of Profession
Profession is a job, but not all the work is a profession. Profession has its own characteristics that distinguish it from other work. The characteristics of the list does not contain all of the characteristics that have applied to the profession, not all of these traits also apply to every profession:
1. Skills based on theoretical knowledge
Professionals are assumed to have extensive theoretical knowledge and skills are based on the knowledge and can be applied in practice.
2. Professional associations
Professionals usually have bodies organized by their members, which are intended to enhance the status of its members. Professional organizations usually have specific requirements to become a member.
3. Extensive education
Prestigious professions usually require long education in higher education.
4. Competency exam
Before entering the professional organizations, there is usually a requirement to pass a test that tests mainly theoretical knowledge.
5. Institutional training
In addition to the exam, also usually required to attend professional training istitusional where candidates gain practical experience before becoming a full member of the organization. Upgrading of skills through professional development is also required.
Profession establish registration requirements and certification process so that only those who have a license can be considered to be trusted.
7. Work autonomy
Professionals tend to control their working and theoretical knowledge in order to avoid the need for outside intervention.
8. Code of Conduct
Professional organizations usually have a code of ethics for its members and disciplinary procedures for those who violate the rules.
9. Set yourself
Professional organizations should be able to set their own organizations without government interference. Professionally arranged by their more senior, respected practitioners, or their highest qualified.
10. Public service and altruism
Income earned from work profession can be maintained as long as related to public needs, such as physician services contribute to public health.
11. Status and high reward
The most successful professions achieve high status will, prestige, and proper remuneration for its members. This can be seen as recognition of the service they provide to society.
The term profession has been understood by many people that a matter relating to the areas that are affected by education and expertise, so many people who work remains appropriate. But with only expertise gained from vocational education, also called a profession is not enough. But need to control the underlying theory of systematic implementation practices, and the relationship between theory and application in practice. We not only know the term profession for creative fields such as medicine, teachers, military, lawyers, and the like, but also extends to include areas such as managers, journalists, painters, singers, artists, secretaries and so on. Correspondingly, according to DE GEORGE, confusion arose regarding understanding the profession itself, with respect to the terms profession and professional. This confusion arises because many people who are not professionals or not be included in the professional sense.
Following professions and professional understanding by DE GEORGE:
PROFESSIONALS are work done as a main activity to generate livelihood and who rely on a skill.
PROFESSIONALS are people who have a professional or a full time job and live off the job by relying on a highly skilled or a professional is someone who lives by practicing a particular skill or to engage in a particular activity according to expertise, while others do same as a hobby, for fun, or for leisure.
We have to remember and understand very well that (WORK / PROFESSIONAL and PROFESSIONAL) there are some differences:
- Relying on a specific skill or expertise.
- Implemented as a job or main activity (full-time).
- Implemented as a main source of livelihood.
- Implemented with deep personal involvement.
- People who know the expertise and skills.
- Spending his entire time to the work or activities.
- Live from there.
- Proud of her job.
B. Definition of Professionalism
In Big Indonesian Dictionary, professionalism has meaning; quality, quality, and behavior that is characteristic of a profession or a professional. Professionalism is an attitude of a professional. Means a term that describes that each work shall be done by a person skilled in the art or profession. According to Supriya, the use of the term refers to the degree of professionalism as a professional person's appearance or the appearance of a job as a profession, there is a high professionalism, medium and low. Professionalism also refers to the attitude and commitment of members of the profession to work based on high standards and a code of professional ethics.
Profsionalisme concepts, such as the research developed by Hall, the word is widely used research to see how the professionals look at the profession, which is reflected in their attitudes and behaviors. The concept of professionalism in research Sumardi explained that he has five cargo or principles, namely: First, the affiliate community (community affilition) is using as a reference professional associations, including formal organizations or informal groups colleague main source of ideas work. Through these professional associations to build awareness of the profession professionals.
Second, the need to be independent (autonomy demand) is a professional pendangan that someone should be able to make their own decisions without pressure from other parties (government, clients, those who are not members of the profession). Each of the intervention (intervention) that come from the outside, is considered as an obstacle to the development of independent professionals. Many who want a job that gives special privileges to make decisions and work without closely monitored. Sense of independence can be derived from the freedom of doing what is best according to the particular situation in question. Third, confidence in the rule itself / profession (belief self regulation) meant that the ultimate authority for assessing the professional work is a fellow professional, not "outsiders" who do not have competence in the field of science and their work.
Fourth, dedication to the profession (dedication) of professional dedication mirrored by using the knowledge and skills possessed. Constancy remains to carry out the work although considered extrinsic rewards decreases. This attitude is an expression of the total self outpouring of the job. Employment is defined as the destination. This totality is a personal commitment, so primary compensation is expected of job satisfaction after the new spiritual and material, and the fifth, social obligations (social obligation) is a view of the importance of the profession as well as the benefits derived by the public as well as professionals because of the job The.
The fifth definition above is the criteria used to measure the degree of one's professional attitude. Based on the definition of professionalism is the concept that refers to the attitude of a person or even a group, which successfully meets these elements perfectly.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PROFESSIONALS
In general, there are some traits or characteristics that are always attached to the profession, namely:
1. The existence of specialized knowledge, expertise and skills that are usually owned thanks to education, training and years of experience.
2. The existence of rules and moral standards are very high. This is normally each actor profession basing its activities on the professional code of ethics.
3. Serve the public interest, meaning that every implementer profession should put personal interests to the interests of the community.
4. There is a special permit to run a profession. Each profession will always be associated with the interests of society, where human values such as safety, security, survival and so on, then to run a profession must first exist a special permit.
5. Professionals usually a member of a profession.
By looking at common traits profession above, we can conclude that professionals are the ones who have a yardstick of behavior that is above average. On the one hand there are the demands and challenges of a very heavy, but on the other hand there is a clarity about the pattern of good behavior in the context of the public interest. If all areas of life and field activities with the standards applying a high professional, can be expected to create a society that is getting good quality.
C. Criteria Work Being A Profession
In order to understand more about the profession to know the ten kinds of criteria expressed by Horton Bakkington and Robers Patterson in the study of the ten criteria professional positions:
1. Profession must meet the needs of the community and use scientific principles that can be accepted by society.
2. Profession should demand an adequate professional training and entrenched.
3. Profession demands a systematic and specialized institutions.
4. Profession should provide information about the skills needed in which the general public does not have it.
5. Professions have already developed a result of its proven track record.
6. Profession should be a useful type of job.
7. Profession should have discretion and require training task performance.
8. Profession should have the awareness of group bonding as a force capable of encouraging and fostering its members.
9. Profession should be a stepping stone for another job.
10. Profession must recognize its obligations to the public by requiring its members received the code of conduct and built.
Of established criteria, it is concluded that the workers may be said to be the work of a profession if it meets the following characteristics:
a. Specialization meet with a broad theoretical background (knowledge and skills).
b. Fostered an organizational career (linkages in professional organizations, having a code of ethics and devotion to the community).
c. Recognized as a job that society has professional status (gain community support, legal protection and job requirements and have proper security).
In accordance with the terms of the profession and the characteristics described above, it is the teacher's job duties professionalism, remember the following things:
1. Necessary academic requirements and a code of ethics.
2. Increasingly demanded their qualifications in order to know about the problems of child development (Saleh, 2005:278-280).
Abudin Nata added three criteria for a professional job:
a. Contains elements of devotion
Every profession developed to provide specific services to the community. Any person claiming to be a developer of a particular profession should be absolutely sure that he has sufficient knowledge and skills to provide services to the community.
b. Contains elements of idealism
Every profession is not just a search eye or occupation that brought the material alone but in the sense of devotion to the profession was covered in something noble and idealistic, as devoted to justice, truth alleviate the suffering of our fellow humans.
c. Contains elements of development
Each profession has an obligation to enhance the working procedure of the underlying continuous devotion. Technically profession should not be stopped or stalled. If this happens unstuck technique that profession is undergoing a process kelayuan considered or already dead. Thus, profesipun even become extinct from public life (Nata, 2001:139).
According to Mukhtar Lutfi there are eight criteria that must be met by a work order can be termed as a profession, namely:
1. A full-time vocation.
2. Knowledge and skills or expertise.
5. Diagnostic skills and competencies applicable
7. Code of Conduct
Wolmer and Mills in Sardiman said the work was said to be a profession if it meets the following criteria:
1. Have specialties with an extensive background.
2. Fostered an organizational career.
3. Society recognized as having the status of a professional job. (Sardiman, 2007:164).
Nata wijaya Rahman suggested several criteria as characteristics of a profession:
1. There is a basic work standards and clear.
2. There is a special institution that produces the culprit with a good educational program.
3. There is an adequate organization to defend and fight culprit existence and well-being.
4. There are ethics and codes of conduct that govern the behavior of the perpetrators in treating clients.
5. There is a reward system for its services and a fair standard.
6. There is a recognition society (professional and lay rulers) to work as a profession.
Profession, is the work done as the main activities to generate livelihood and who rely on a skill. Professional, is the person who has a profession or a full time job and live off the job by relying on a high expertise. Or a professional is someone who lives by practicing a particular skill or to engage in a particular activity according to expertise, while other people do the same thing as a hobby, for fun, or for leisure.
The basic concept of professionalism is the key to a professional, because this is what underlies a person to be a professional in practicing a profession possessed.
Guru is one of the professions, the profession today has to be able to become a professional. Because of the demands of development and this is in line with the educational system dynamics. Being a teacher should be professional because later generations who will bear the profession professionalism through.
Pusat Bahasa Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, (Jakarta: Balai Pustaka, 2001), Edisi III, hal. 897.
Sjafri Sairin, Membangun Profesionalisme Muhammadiyah, (Yogyakarta: Lembaga Pengembangan Tenaga Profesi [LPTP], 2003), hal 37.
Sumardi, Pengaruh Pengalaman Terhadap Profesionalisme Serta Pengaruh Profesionalisme Terhadap Kinerja dan Kepuasan Kerja, Tesis, Undip, 2001.